SCA Feast - Coronation Feast of Cadogan and AnnMarie September 27, 2014
Unfortunately, there is only one photo saved from the feast itself, and that is the partially assembled subteltie. However, as I experimented and perfected several of the recipes, I did take pictures and will include them where appropriate. The subteltie was a hollow fondant dragon egg, surrounded by rondels of sugar paste painted in baronial colors. When the egg was lifted, inside were dragons made of milk chocolate. It was surrounded by fresh herbs and flowers from my garden.
The First Remove
Bolonia Sausages with Mustard and CaperBerries
Buttered Onions Otherways
A Diverse Sallet
The Second Remove
Stewed Collops and Balls
Gourds Otherways with Orange-Butter Sauce
To Boyle Garden Beans
A Made Dish of Elizabethan Sweets
- Perys in Compost
- Boyled Crème
- Sugar Paste
- Candied Fruit
Chick Peas with Herbs
Mushrooms one night are the best, and are small and ruddy inside, closed above: and should peel and wash hot and pourboulir nor water; which veult to paste, if there starts tothe rust of chees and pouldre. Put them between two dishes on coals, and put a little of salt, chees and pouldre. The treuve in by the end of May and in June.
1 ½ to 2 pounds of mushrooms, cleaned, sliced and quartered
1 to 2 tbs. olive oil
1 to 1 ½ cups grated or shredded cheese (Mozzarella)
1 9” pie shell – Lid is optional
1 tsp. “Good Powder” (See Below)
Parboil the mushrooms and drain them well. Excess moisture will leave the pie crust “wet” after baking. Add oil, cheese and spices to the mushrooms and place into the pie shell. If you wish, add a lid, but the pies are delicious with a little bit of extra cheese on top. Bake at 400 degrees until pie crust is golden, and cheese has melted.
Note: The pies were par-baked at coronation for approximately 20 minutes and then set aside to be returned to the oven 15 minutes prior to being served. Excess moisture did collect and was drained off before the second baking.
The ratios for the “good powder” that I used were as below: 3:3:2:2:1:1
Grains of Paradise
To make an Olio Podrida
Take a Pipkin or Pot of some three Gallons, fill it with fair water, and set it over a Fire of Charcoals, and put in first your hardest meats, a rump of Beef, _Bolonia_ sausages, neats tongues two dry, and two green, boiled and larded, about two hours after the Pot is boil'd and scummed: but put in more presently after your Beef is scum'd, Mutton, Venison, Pork, Bacon, all the aforesaid in Gubbins,as big as a Ducks Egg, in equal pieces; put in also Carrots, Turnips, Onions, Cabbidge, in good big pieces, as big as your meat, a faggot of sweet herbs, well bound up, and some whole Spinage, Sorrel, Burrage, Endive, Marigolds, and other good Pot-Herbs a little chopped; and sometimes _French_ Barley, or Lupins green or dry.
Then a little before you dish out your Olio; put to your pot, Cloves, Mace, Saffron, _&c._
Then next have divers Fowls; as first _A Goose, or Turkey, two Capons, two Ducks, two Pheasants, two Widgeons, four Partridges, four stock Doves, four Teals, eight Snites, twenty four Quails, forty eight Larks._
Boil these foresaid Fowls in water and salt in a pan, pipkin, or pot, _&c._
Then have _Bread_, _Marrow_, _Bottoms of Artichocks_, _Yolks of hard Eggs_, _Large Mace_, Chesnuts boil'd and blancht_, _two Colliflowers_, _Saffron_.
And stew these in a pipkin together, being ready clenged with some good sweet butter, a little white wine and strong broth.
Some other times for variety you may use Beets, Potato's, Skirrets, Pistaches, PineApple seed, or Almonds, Poungarnet, and Lemons.
Now to dish your Olio, dish first your Beef, Veal or Pork; then your Venison, and Mutton, Tongues, Sausage, and Roots over all.
Then next your largest Fowl, Land-Fowl, or Sea-Fowl, as first, a Goose, or Turkey, two Capons, two Pheasants, four Ducks, four Widgeons, four Stock-Doves, four Partridges, eight Teals, twelve Snites, twenty four Quailes, forty eight Larks, _&c._
Then broth it, and put on your pipkin of Colliflowers Artichocks, Chesnuts, some sweet-breads fried, Yolks of hard Eggs, then Marrow boil'd in strong broth or water, large Mace, Saffron, Pistaches, and all the aforesaid things being finely stewed up, and some red Beets over all, slic't Lemons, and Lemon peels whole, and run it over with beaten butter.
1/2 pound stew beef
¼ pound sausages
¼ pound lamb
¼ pound venison
1/3 pound pork
½ pound slab bacon
¼ pound turkey
¼ pound chicken
2 Onions diced
1 large sweet potato, peeled and diced
1 turnip peeled and diced
1 parsnip peeled and diced
2 carrots, peeled and diced
Approximately 2 ½ to 3 cups chopped greens including cabbage, spinach, kale, beet greens, chard, mustard greens
½ tsp each dried. thyme, marjoram
1 tsp. pepper
¼ tsp. clove, mace and saffron
2 tbsp. chopped parsley
2 tbsp. red wine vinegar
For the vegetarian version: Roasted red beets and pistachios to garnish over the top along with a slice of lemon.
The meat version will be garnished with pistachios and lemon slices and eggs chopped.
Note: For the Olio served at feast, we added rabbit and goose, and did not include bacon. The instructions indicate that this is to be a “made dish”, but we cooked all the items together and served it as a stew. Because the stew was not brought to table as originally planned the garnish was not included.
The meat was cooked prior to the event. The meat was added to the pot along with onions, carrots, parsley and herbs. Water was added to cover the meat and it was brought to a boil to cook. After the meat was cooked the spent vegetables and herbs were removed. On the day of the event, the vegetables were cooked in the “stock”, the meat was cut into bite sized pieces (and it shredded up during the day) and was added along with more seasoning. The greens were the last items that were added. I used a mixture of cabbage, spinach, kale, beet, collard and mustard greens.
Bolonia Sausages with Mustard and CaperBerries
The best way and time of the year is to make them in _September_.
Take four stone of pork, of the legs the leanest, and take away all the skins, sinews, and fat from it; mince it fine and stamp it: then add to it three ounces of whole pepper, two ounces of pepper moregrosly cracked or beaten, whole cloves an ounce, nutmegs an ounce finely beaten, salt, spanish, or peter-salt, an ounce of coriander-seed finely beaten, or carraway-seed, cinamon an ounce fine beaten, lard cut an inch long, as big as your little finger, and clean without rust; mingle all the foresaid together; and fill beef guts as full as you can possibly, and as the wind gathers in the gut, prick them with a pin, and shake them well down with your hands; for if they be not well filled, they will be rusty.
These aforesaid Bolonia Sausages are most excellent of pork only: but some use buttock beef, with pork, half one and as much of the other. Beef and pork are very good.
Some do use pork of a weeks powder for this use beforesaid, and no more salt at all.
Some put a little sack in the beating of these sausages, and put in place of coriander-seed, carraway-seed.
This is the most excellent way to make Bolonia Sausages, being carefully filled, and tied fast with a packthred, and smoaked or smothered three or four days, that will turn them red; then hang them in some cool cellar or higher room to take the air.
Sausages of pork with some of the fat of a chine of bacon or pork, some sage chopped fine and small, salt, and pepper: and fill them into porkets guts, or hogs, or sheeps guts, or no guts, and let them dry in the chimney leisurely, _&c._
4 ½ pounds of pork
1 tsp. each cracked black pepper, whole peppercorns, cubebs and longpepper
½ tsp each. cloves, nutmeg, salt, coriander
1 tsp. sage, salt, marjoram and thyme
The pork was ground, cased, cured and smoked by the meat market. The day of the event, the pork was first boiled, and then crisped in the pizza ovens.
Mustard of Dijon, or French Mustard
The seed being cleansed, stamp it in a mortar, with vinegar and honey, then take eight ounces of seed, two ounces of cinamon, two of honey, and vinegar as much as will serve, good mustard not too thick, and keep it close covered in little oyster-barrels.
To make dry Mustard very pleasant in little Loaves or Cakes to carry in ones Pocket, or to keep dry for use at any time._
Take two ounces of seamy, half an ounce of cinamon, and beat them in a mortar very fine with a little vinegar, and honey, make a perfect paste of it, and make it into little cakes or loaves, dry them in the sun or in an oven, and when you would use them, dissolve half a loaf or cake with some vinegar, wine, or verjuyce.
Makes approximately 3 cups
1 Cup Mustard Seeds
1 ½ Cups Mustard Powder
¼ cup cinnamon
¼ cup honey
½ cup vinegar
1 ½ cups water
Grind the whole mustard seeds for a few seconds in a spice or coffee grinder, or by hand with a mortar and pestle just enough to crack. Pour the seeds, mustard powder, honey and cinnamon into a bowl and then add COLD vinegar and water. Wait at least 12 hours before using. Seeds can be a mix of brown, black or white. Black offers the most “heat”.
Note: I purchased prepared whole grain mustard and stone ground mustard mix in lieu of making the mustard. To these I added the cinnamon and honey. This dish was prepared almost a month in advance of the feast.
The caperberries were purchased through Amazon.
Buttered Onions Otherways
Being peeled, put them into boiling liquor, and when they are boil’d, drain them in a cullender, and butter them whole with some boil’d currans, butter, sugar, and beaten cinamon, serve them on fine sippets, scrape on sugar, and run them over with beaten butter.
(The Second part of the good Hus-wiues Iewell., 2009)
To boile onions
Take a good many onions and cut them in four quarters, set them on the fire in as much water as you think will boile them tender, and when they be clean skimmed, put in a good many raisons, halfe a grose pepper, a good peece of sugar, and a little salte, and when the onions be through boiled, beat the yolke of an Egge with Vergious, and put into your pot and so serve it upon soppes. If you will, poch Egges and lay upon them.
(The Second part of the good Hus-wiues Iewell., 2009)
1 ½ to 2 pounds small boiling onions -or- a mix of onions (spanish, boiling, red, Vidalia, leeks or scallions)
3 tbsp. butter or oil (optional)
¼ to ½ cup currants or raisins
2 tbsp. sugar or honey
½ tsp. cinnamon
1 cup or more as needed to cover the onions water, vegetable or other stock
2 tbsp. red wine vinegar or verjuice
Note: Butter and oil were not included in the feast for this dish. The onions were covered with water and the vinegar, sugar and cinnamon were added and a good handful or two of currants were added.
A Diverse Sallet Otherways
Boil'd parsnips in quarters laid round the dish, and in the midst some small sallet, or water cresses finely washed and picked, on the water-cresses some little small lettice finely picked and washed also, and some elicksander-buds in halves, and some in quarters, and between the quarters of the parsnips, some small lettice, some water-cresses and elicksander-buds, oyl and vinegar, and round the dish some slices of parsnips.
4 parsnips and 4 carrots, peeled and sliced in half longway’s. If they are larger (and woodier) cut in quarters along the length
Watercress, parsley and or mint leaves
Endive (cut in quarters)
¾ cup Oil
2 tbsp. wine Vinegar
Salt and Pepper to taste
Boil (or roast) the vegetables. If roasting, place on a buttered sheet for 15 to 20 minutes and cook until tender. Place the carrots and parsnips on the serving dish so that ends meet in the middle and they form spokes as if spokes on a wheel.
Place a handful of the watercress, parsley and mint leaves mixed in the center of the serving platter. In between the spokes of the wheel place the endive leaves.
Note: Carrots of diverse colors were used for the salad at feast. Many of the parsnips I was able to locate were large and woody and would not have made a very good salad, but were suitable for the Olio. The carrots were roasted to bring out their best flavor.
Capers were placed inside the endive leaves and pickled mushrooms (recipe to follow) decorated the plate the salad was served on.
The salads were prepared early in the day and dressing was poured on them as they were being served.
Take a bushel of mushrooms, blanch them over the crown, barm them beneath; if they are new, they look read as a Cherry; if old, black; this being done, throw them into a pan oif boyling water, then take them forth and let them drain; when they are cold, put them up into your Pot or Glass, put thereto Cloves, Mace, Ginger, Nutmeggs, whole Pepper; Then take white wine, a little Vinegar, with a llittle quantity of salt, so pour the Liquor into your Mushrooms, and stop them close for your use all the year.
1 pound small mushrooms
½ cup water
1 ½ - 2 tsp. salt
1 tsp peppercorns
1/2 tsp. mace and nutmeg
1 slice of fresh root ginger
1 ½ Cups white wine
2 tbsp vinegar
Clean the mushrooms and slice or quarter as you desire. Place mushrooms in a pan and cover with the water. Add salt. Bring mushrooms to a boil; boil for approximately two minutes and then drain. Place the mushrooms in your jar, add remainder of spices, wine and vinegar. If you find that you do not have enough liquid to cover the mushrooms, add more wine. Once a day invert the jar.
Note: The mushrooms were made several weeks prior to the event. I canned them. I did reheat the mushrooms to remove the alcohol content prior to serving. This was a very good make ahead dish. 1 pound of the mushrooms made 2 jars of pickles.
First wet the paste with butter and cold water, roul it very thin, then lay apples in the lays, and between every lay of apples, strew some fine sugar, and some lemon-peel cut very small, you may also put some fennil-seed to them; let them bake an hour or more, then ice them with rose-water, sugar, and butter beaten together, and wash them over with the same, strew more fine sugar on them, and put them into the oven again, being enough serve them hot or cold.
To make the best Taffaty Tarts
To make Tarts called Taffaty Tarts. First wet your Past with Butter and cold Water, and rowle it very thin, also then lay them in layes, and between every lay of Apples strew some Sugar, and some Lemon Pill, cut very small, if you please put some Fennell-seed to them; then put them into a stoak hot Oven, and let them stand an hour in or more, then take them out, and take Rose-water and Butter beaten together, and wash them over with the same, and strew fine Sugar upon them; then put them into the Oven again, let them stand a little while and take them out.
(The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Compleat Cook, by Nath. Brook, 2003)
3-4 apples cored, and sliced paper thin
½ cup apple cider (not juice)
1/2 c sugar
1 Lemon or Orange Zested
1 to 2 tsp. fennel seed roughly cracked (optional)
Puff pastry tart shells
2 tsp. rosewater
Note: Orange Marmalade was substituted for the lemon, sugar, rosewater and fennel mixture called for in the recipe. If you wish to make the same substitution thin out orange marmalade with a little bit of water and add honey to taste, cook apple tarts for half the time required on the puff pastry directions, remove from oven, spoon orange marmalade over apples and return to oven.
Take some of the buttock of beef, and cut it into thin slices cross the grain of the meat, then hack them and fry them in sweet butter, and being fryed fine and brown put them in a pipkin with some strong broth, a little claret wine, and some nutmeg, stew it very tender; and half an hour before you dish it, put to it some good gravy, elder-vinegar, and a clove or two; when you serve it, put some juyce of orange, and three or four slices on it, stew down the gravy somewhat thick, and put into it when you dish it some beaten butter.
One may add sometimes some of the minced meat made up into balls, and stewed amongst the broth,
Take colops of venison rostyd; do hem yn a pott. Do wyn therto, hole spycez & poudyr of pepyr & canell. Boyle hit up weth a perty of swete brothe. Sesyn hit up with poudyr of gunger & vyneger, & serve it forth.
(Hieatt, 1988 )
2 pounds of beef or venison sliced fairly thick
6 each peppercorn, clove, cubeb
1/8 tsp. ground pepper
½ tsp. ground cinnamon
¼ tsp. ground ginger
1 cup beef broth
1 tbs. red wine vinegar
Arrange the meat in the pan and add in the spices, vinegar and broth. Bake in a 400 degree oven until the meat has been cooked fully through.
Other manner of Balls
Mince a leg of Veal very small, yolks of hard eggs, and the yolks of seven or eight raw eggs, some salt, make them into balls as big as a walnut, and stew them in a pipkin with some mutton broth, mace, cloves, and slic't ginger, stew them an hour, and put some marrow to them, and serve them on sippets, _&c._
1 pound ground meat preferably 50/50 blend pork and beef (veal)
12 hardboiled egg finely chopped (Optional)
½ tsp. salt
¼ tsp. pepper
¼ cup currants (optional)
2 large eggs
For the broth:
2 cups beef broth
½ tsp. each cinnamon and salt
¼ tsp. each. Pepper and mace
1 tbsp. red wine
¼ cup currants
Bring the broth to a boil. Form the meat mixture into approximately 12 small sized meatballs. Drop the meatballs into the broth and simmer gently for approximately 40 minutes or until cooked.
Note: The meatballs were made before feast. The broth was saved and added to the collops. The meatballs are a great make ahead dish. Because they had been previously cooked, they were added to the collops about an hour prior to serving.
Pick the rice and sift it, and when the liquor boils, put it in and scum it, boil it not too much, then drain it, butter it, and serve it on fine carved sippets, and scraping sugar only, or sugar and cinamon.
Butter wheat, and French barley, as you do rice, but hull your wheat and barley, wet the wheat and beat it in a sack with a wash-beetle, fan it, and being clean hulled, boil it all night on a soft fire very tender.
1 bag frozen rice
½ cup cream
2 tbsp. butter
Dash of salt
Combine rice, cream, butter and salt together and heat until butter is melted and cream has been absorbed. This can be done in the oven.
Gourds Otherways with Orange-Butter Sauce
Fry them in slices, being cleans'd & peel'd, either floured or in batter; being fried, serve them with beaten butter, and vinegar, or beaten butter and juyce of orange, or butter beaten with a little water, and served in a clean dish with fryed parsley, elliksanders, apples, slic't onions fryed, or sweet herbs
Oil to fry with
Dredge the zucchini in the flour and fry until golden brown. Sprinkle with a little bit of salt and serve with orange butter sauce (Recipe Below)
Zest from 3 Oranges
1/2 gallons orange juice
Salt & Pepper to taste
2 Pounds Butter
Stir together first 4 ingredients in a nonaluminum saucepan; bring to a boil. Cook over medium-high heat 25 minutes or until mixture is reduces by 1/4. Remove from heat. Gradually whisk butter into orange juice mixture. Serve immediately.
Note: The orange butter sauce did not go out with the gourds at feast
*Medieval gourds were most likely “bottle gourds” of the genus Lagenaria. The closest representation that we have is the zucchini.
To boyle Garden Beans
Being shelled and cleansed, put them into boiling liquor with some salt, boil them up quick, and being boiled drain away the liquor and butter them, dish them in a dish like a cross, and serve them with pepper and salt on the dish side.
Thus also green pease, haslers, broom-buds, or any kind of pulse.
To boil French Beans or Lupins.
First take away the tops of the cods and the strings, then have a pan or skillet of fair water boiling on the fire, when it boils put them in with some salt, and boil them up quick; being boil’d serve them with beaten butter in a fair scowred dish, and salt about it.
1 pound frozen green beans
Heat the beans, salt and butter
Note: The beans served at feast were a combination of Dragons Tongue wax beans and green beans purchased at the farmers market. The common green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) purportedly reached England in 1594 and was considered a novelty food (Seeds of trade: Product: Beans, 2013).
A Made Dish of Elizabethan Sweets
- Pears in Compost: pears, red wine, cinnamon, sugar, dates, salt
- Boiled Cream Custard: cream, cream cheese, eggs, sugar, saffron, salt, ginger
- Marchpane: almonds, sugar, rosewater, powdered sugar
- Sugar Paste: gum tragacanth, rosewater, lemon juice, powdered sugar, cinnamon oil
- Candied Fruit: Fruit, sugar, water, honey
- Apple Paste
- Spanish Marmalade
- Orange Marmalade
- Comfits of anise and caraway
- Manus Christi
- Clove Electuaries
Peeres In Confyt.
Take peeres and pare hem clene. take gode rede wyne & mulberes oþer saundres and seeþ þe peeres þerin & whan þei buth ysode, take hem up, make a syryp of wyne greke. oþer vernage with blaunche powdour oþer white sugur and powdour gyngur & do the peres þerin. seeþ it a lytel & messe it forth
(The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Forme of Cury, by Samuel Pegge, 2013)
Perys en Composte.
Take Wyne an Canel, & a gret dele of Whyte Sugre, an set it on þe fyre & hete it hote, but let it nowt boyle, an draw it þorwe a straynoure; þan take fayre Datys, an pyke owt þe stonys, an leche hem alle þinne, an caste þer-to; þanne take Wardonys, an pare hem and sethe hem, an leche hem alle þinne, & caste þer-to in-to þe Syryppe; þanne take a lytil Sawnderys, and caste þer-to, an sette it on þe fyre; an yif þow hast charde quynce, caste þer-to in þe boyling, an loke þat it stonde wyl with Sugre, an wyl lyid wyth Canel, an caste Salt þer-to, an let it boyle; an þan caste yt on a treen vessel, & lat it kele, and serue forth.
4 Pears, peeled, cored and sliced
2 cups red wine (I used Apothica Red)
1 Cinnamon Stick
1 Tbsp. sugar
Boil the pears in water until they are tender, approximately 20 minutes. Drain the pears and in the same pan, heat wine, cinnamon, dates and sugar together. Add the pears and cook for approximately five minutes more.
If you are planning on serving that day, allow to cool slightly and remove the cinnamon sticks.
Note: The pears were canned approximately two weeks prior to Coronation. Before canning I removed the cinnamon stick and filled the jar with wine. I canned according to directions. This is a good make ahead dish.
Take swete crème of melke; do hit in a pott. Do therto buttur claryfyed. Set hit on the fyre; stere hit. When hit boyles, have yolkes of eyron drawyn thorowgh a streynour into a bole, & put boylyng crem thereto| with a ladyl. Styr hit well for quallyng, & put hit in the pott ayen; & yf be nede, yeve hit a lytyl more of the fyre. Loke hit have white sygure ynowghe, & of the bature also loke hit be standing as mortruys; & coloure hit with safron. Loke hit be salt. Messe hit forth, and strew on poudur of ginger.
(Hieatt, 1988 )
2 Cups whipping cream
4 ounces cream cheese
3 whole eggs
¼ cup sugar
Pinch of saffron
¼ tsp. salt
1 tsp. ground ginger
Blend the cream with softened cream cheese, put this mixture in a large saucepan and heat it over a low heat, stirring. Beat the eggs separately with the sugar, saffron and salt, and gradually add the hot cream mixture.
Continue to beat until smoothly blended. Return to stove and cook very gently until it has thickened. Pour into serving dishes and allow to cool
Before serving decorate with ginger and sugar, edible or candied flowers, berries or pomegranate seeds.
NOTE: The easy way to ‘boil cream’ is in a microwave oven. The quantity of cream should be 1 ½ cups only. To microwave custard heat the cream in a large glass dish for 2 minutes at full power. While cream is heating, beat the eggs, sugar, saffron and salt together. Mix the cheese and egg mixture with the heated cream and microwave on low power for 6 minutes. Rotate dish and microwave for 6 more minutes. DO NOT STIR during this process. Allow to cool and serve.
To make Marzipan.
Lancelot de Casteau: Ouverture de Cuisine. Liège 1604.
Take almonds appointed as above, & flatten the paste as for making a tart, then form the marzipan as fancy as you want, then take sifted sugar & mix with rose water, & beat it together that it is like a thick batter, cast there a little on the marzipan, & flatten with a well held knife until the marzipan is all covered, then put it into the oven on paper: when you see that it boils thereon & that it does like ice, tear apart from the oven, when it doesn't boil, & sprinkle on nutmeg: if you want it golden, make it so
2 Cups Almond Meal Flour
2 Cups Confectioners’ Sugar
Mix the almond meal flour (I used Hodgson Mill) with the confectioners’ sugar and add enough water to make a dough the consistency of play dough. Shape your marzipan and bake on a parchment lined baking sheet for approximately 15 minutes at 300 degrees. Turn off the heat and continue to “bake” another 15 minutes. The paler the marzipan, the prettier it is.
Note: I colored half the dough yellow using food coloring and left the other half natural colored. I’m not sure what happened, but the marzipan puffed up like little pillows. These were made about a week in advance.
Take some fine sugar well-sifted through a fine sieve, then have gum tragacanth well soaked in rose water strained through a sieve as thick as you can strain it, then put your gum in a copper or other mortar & grind your gum well, constantly putting in a little sugar so that you make a kneadable dough. Note the more it is beaten the whiter it becomes: from this dough you can form what you want, such as making in hollow molds, or some trenchers, or plates, or cups whatever you want, & put it to sweat in an oven that is not too hot, you can also gild it as much as you want to have it: take care that the oven is not so hot that it raises the dough in bubbles, this would be worth nothing, because it is necessary that the dough remain firm.
1 teaspoon gum tragacanth
1 tablespoon rosewater
2 teaspoons lemon juice or 1 egg white beaten if the paste is to be non-edible
up to 1 lb. powdered sugar
Combine the gum tragacanth and rosewater in a bowl and mix until it becomes a runny paste. Add the lemon juice or egg white (for non-edible dough) and then gradually add as much sugar as needed to make a smooth, kneadable dough.
If you want to flavor the gum paste add a few drops of food grade oil for candy (I used cinnamon). You can also color the gum paste at this time. Shape as desired and allow to dry.
Note: The sugar paste dragons were made with egg white and had about a tablespoon of cinnamon added to the dough. The coins were made using cinnamon flavored oil and lemon juice.
Take a pound of the smallest cherries, but let them be well coloured, boil them tender in a pint of fair water, then strain the liquor from the cherries and take two pound of other fair cherries, stone them, and put them in your preserving-pan, with a laying of cherries and a laying of sugar, then pour the sirrup of the other strained cherries over them, and let them boil as fast as maybe with a blazing fire, that the sirrup may boil over them; when you see that the sirrup is of a good colour, something thick, and begins to jelly, set them a cooling, and being cold pot them; and so keep them all the year.
1 pound of fruit
The process I used to preserve the cherries was known as “Glace”. To glace fruit you must cook it in water until it is tender. Once the fruit has been made tender, drain the water and add an equal weight of sugar to your fruit. Heat it to dissolve into syrup and bring to a boil, placed in an airtight container and leave it to sit overnight.
Days 2 through 7 – each day you will drain the syrup off of the fruit and add a ½ cup of sugar for every cup of syrup (i.e. if you have 2 cups syrup, you would add one cup of sugar). Bring this mixture to a boil, pour over the fruit and let sit overnight.
Day 8 – pour fruit and syrup into a pan, add a half cup sugar for every cup of syrup and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook gently for three minutes. Return fruit and syrup to airtight container and let soak for two days.
Day 10: Repeat step 8. At this point your syrup should have the consistency of honey. Let the fruit soak for 10 or more days. The longer it soaks the better it will be. Watch for sugar crystalizing on bottom of container.
At the end of your soaking period, remove the fruit from the syrup and let dry on a wire rack. This process can take a bit depending on humidity. You can speed the process up by leaving fruit in an oven heated to the lowest setting and then turned off overnight.
When the surface of the fruit is no longer sticky you can roll it in sugar and store it in an airtight container.
Note: The Cherries for feast were created in this fashion. The remaining dried fruit was purchased (plums, apricots, apple rings and pears). The fruit was dipped in a simple syrup made up of two cups sugar to one cup water, allowed to dry and then sugared.
Apple Or Pippin Paste
Take any quantity of good dressing apples, pare, core and put them into a preserving pan with a little water, or just sufficient to cover them. Boil until they are reduced to a marmalade, stirring them to prevent burning. To every pound of reduced pulp add half or three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, clarified and boiled to the blow; pass the pulp through a hair sieve before you mix the sugar with it; put it on the fire and let it boil for three or four minutes, keeping it constantly stirred from the bottom, when it will be sufficiently evaporated. If it be required coloured, add liquid colour sufficient to give the desired tint when you mix the sugar. Spread the paste on small tin or pewter sheets (these should be about a foot wide, by a foot and a-half long, and perfectly level) with a thin knife, about the eighth of an inch in thickness; put them in the stove for a day; take them out, and cut the paste into long narrow strips, about a quarter of an inch in width; if the paste is dry enough, the strips can be easily pulled off; form them into rings or knots, or cut into diamonds to form leaves, or any other device your fancy may suggest. Put them in boxes with sheet paper between each layer.
To make paste of Genua of Quinces.
Take Quinces, and pare them, and cut them in slices, and bake them in an oven dry in an earthen pot without any other juice than their own, then take one pound thereof; strain it, and put it into a stone mortar with half a pound of sugar; and when you have beaten it up to a paste, print it in your moulds, and dry it three or four times in an oven after you have drawn bread. And when it is thoroughly dry and hardened, you may box it, and it will keep all the year.
1 40 ounce jar organic applesauce
6 cups granulated sugar
Note: Quinces were out of season so I substituted apples for this recipe. This recipe can also be made with pears or apricots or oranges. The process is the same for all fruits.
The first batch of paste I made was a terribly time consuming process with very little yield from the 8 apples I cored, sliced and then cooked to a mush. I got a little over a cup of useable paste when I was done. It occurred to me at the end of the process I had just made applesauce. For feast, I skipped this part and started by adding equal weight sugar to applesauce and then cooking it on the stovetop until it became thick and started to pull away from the sides of the pan. When it hit this stage, I poured the mixture onto a baking sheet that I had lined with parchment paper which had been lightly oiled. I then set it in my oven to dry. This was made approximately a month prior to coronation. Once dried, I wrapped it in wax paper and put it into an airtight container. This became very sticky when exposed to the humidity of the kitchen. What I would do differently would be to cut the paste into squares, prior to serving and then roll in white sugar directly before serving so as to minimize exposure to humidity
This was a very time consuming dish to put together at the last minute. Do early in the day if possible and keep refrigerated. You can “color’ your apple paste by adding apple peels; this will make a red paste, or removing the peels to make the golden (white?) paste.
Take five sponfulls of rose water and seaven sponfulls of sugar finely beaten, make yt boyle you must have redy by you two handfulls of almondes blanches and finely grownd, wth 15 or 16 dates ye stones and whights taken out, and yor dates cut smale and beaten in a morter, then mixe yor dates and almondes well together, then put yt in your Sirrope stirring yt well together, then take on sponfull of pouder of sinamond, halfe a sponfull of ye pouder of pearles, three sheets of Golde, stirr all theise well, but you must take yt first from the fire or else yt will bee to stiffe that you can-not mingell yt, before yt bee through cold put yt upp into a marmalad boxe.
1 cup sugar
2 tablespoons rosewater 12 oz. slivered almonds
13 ounces baking date paste
1 tablespoon cinnamon
Line an 8x8 baking pan with parchment paper that has been greased or wax paper. In a food processor grind dates, date paste and slivered almonds and cinnamon together. Combine sugar and rosewater in a saucepan and bring to a boil. Cook until the sugar mixture hits softball stage. If you are afraid the sugar will crystallize on you add a small amount of lemon juice in place of rosewater. Mix the syrup and the date-almond paste together and cook until the mixture thickens and begins to pull away from the side of the pan. Pour into your mold and let dry.
Shape and roll in sugar prior to serving.
Prepare as for apple paste, using equal weight of oranges and sugar. I processed my oranges in a food processor.
Comfits of anise and caraway
The Seeds which we generally make Comfitts of, are Carraways, Coriander and Anise-Seeds; these, when they are cover'd with Sugar, are call'd Comfits, ( Confects ).
The Instruments to be employ'd for this Use, are first a deep-bottom'd Bason of Bell-Metal, or Brass, well tinn'd, to be hung over some hot Coals.
Secondly, You must have a broad Pan to put hot Coals in.
Thirdly, Provide a Brass Ladle to pour the Sugar upon the Seeds.
Fourthly, You must have a Brass Slice to scrape off the Sugar that may chance to hang upon the side of the hanging Bason.
Then take care that your Seeds are dry, or dry them well in your hanging Pan. To every quarter of a Pound of Seeds use two Pounds of fine Sugar beaten; unless to Anise-Seeds, use two Pounds of Sugar to half a Pound of Seeds.
To begin the Work, put three Pounds of fine Sugar into the Bason with one Pint of Water, to be stirr'd well together till the Sugar is wet; and boil it gently, till the Sugar will rope from the Ladle like Turpentine, and it is enough. Keep this however warm, upon warm Embers, that it may run. freely in a ropy Way from the Ladle upon the Seeds.
When this is ready, move the Seeds briskly in the Bason, and fling on them half a ladle-full at a time of the hot Sugar, keeping the Seeds moving for some time; which will make them take the Sugar the better, and be sure to dry them well after every covering, by moving the Bason, and stirring the Comfits. In an Hour, you may make three Pounds of Comfits: you will know when they are coated enough with Sugar, by their becoming as large as you would have them. There is no certain Rule, but our own Fancies, for the Size of them. Note, Till they are as you would have them, cast on more melted Sugar, as at first, and keep them stirring and shaking in the Pan, drying them well after every Coat of Sugar.
If you would have ragged or rough Comfits, make your Sugar so liquid, that it will run from the Ladle; and let it fall upon the Seeds about a Foot and a half high. Let it be very hot, for the hotter it is, the rougher will be your Comfits; and for all that, the Comfits will not take so much Sugar as one may imagine from their Appearance. Put on at each time only one Ladle-full, and in ten times repeating it your Comfits will be perfectly well coated.
For plain Comfits; let not your melted Sugar be too hot at first, nor too thick; neither pour it on the Seeds too high: but the last two or three Coverings may be thicker and hotter.
As for Coriander-Seeds, which are large, three Pounds of Sugar will only cover a quarter of a Pound of them.
While you are at work, you should keep your melted Sugar in good Temper, that it may not gather into Lumps, or burn to the bottom of the Pan; and to prevent its growing too thick at any time, put to it a spoonful or two of Water, gently stirring it now and then with your Ladle, keeping your Fire very clear under your Pan. When your Comfits are made, put them upon Papers in Dishes, and set them before the Fire, or in a declining Oven, which will make them look of a Snow white; when they are cool, put them in Boxes, or in crystal Bottles.
To make Comfits of various Colours. From the same.
If you would have your Comfits of a red Colour, infuse some red Saunders in the Water till it is deep colour'd enough; or else take some Cochineel, and infuse it till the Liquor is red enough; or put some Syrup of Mulberries with Water to the Sugar.
If of a yellow Colour; use Saffron in Water, which you are to mix with the Sugar.
If Green; take the Juice of Spinach, and boil it with the Sugar: so will your Comfits be of the several Colours above-mention'd.
Note: This is the best instructions I have been able to find regarding the making of comfits and although the instructions fall outside of period. Candied seeds of caraway and anise were known in our period.
1 Ounce seed of choice
1 Cup water
1 Cup sugar
Heat the sugar and water mixture together until it forms a thin syrup. Place the seeds into a shallow pan and place over low heat on the stove. Spoon a teaspoon of the syrup mixture over the seeds and stir, being sure to separate the seeds as much as possible. It will take at least ten coats of the syrup to create a good layer of coating on the seeds. If the syrup becomes too hot, the coating of the seeds will be “jagged” and rough.
If you want, you can dissolve some gum Arabic in hot water to make a thick paste, and place the seeds in it first. This will allow the sugar mixture to adhere better.
Take halfe a pound of refined Suger, and some Rose water, and boyle them together, till it come to sugar again, then stirre it about while it be somewhat cold, then take your leaf gould, and mingle with it, then cast it according to art, That is in round gobbetts, and so keep them.
1 cup Confectioner Sugar
3 tbsp. +2 tsp. rosewater
1 tsp. lemon juice
-or- 4 tbsp. rosewater
Gold leaf (optional)
Combine sugar and rosewater in a pan and heat to 245 degree’s and remove from the stove. At this point you can stir the sugar syrup until it becomes cloudy, or, drop it into your molds. You can also add goldleaf once the syrup has cooled a bit.
Note: I used luster dust in gold and copper in a hexagonal candy mold to make the candies for feast. I preferred adding the lemon juice to the sugar, although the recipe did not call for it because I think it improved the flavor.
Electuary of Cloves. Take two ûqiyas of its flowers and two ratls of sugar dissolved in rosewater; thicken it until it takes the form of a paste and make an electuary, in the form of fingers and tablets. Eat half an ûqiya of it at meals. Its benefits: it excites the appetite, dissolves phlegm, greatly gladdens, increases the force of coitus, and restrains the temperament.
½ oz cloves
1 cup sugar
Enough Rosewater to wet into a paste
Grind cloves. Add them to the sugar. Dissolve the mixture in rosewater to make a paste. Shape into pyramids or pills, or roll into long rolls and then cut one end to resemble a clove.
Note: I did not have enough cloves so I used pumpkin pie spice to make up the difference. I wish I had measured these were really good!
Stuffed Aubergines - serves 3-4
3 small aubergines
1 small onion
2 tbsp. chopped parsley
1 tsp. chopped mint
salt and ground pepper
*note- original recipe uses 1 egg and parmesan cheese
Parboil eggplants for about 10 minutes, or until skin begins to crinkle. Drain, halve and scoop out most of the flesh, leaving ⅛ inch around the skim. Reserve skins and transfer flesh to food processor.
Chop onion and fry lightly in oil, add to the food processor, along with herbs and season to taste with salt and pepper. Spoon puree into reserved skins. Place in shallow heatproof dish, drizzle with olive oil and grill under a preheated grill, until heated through and slightly browned on top.
Chickpeas with Herbs - serves 3-4
Soak ⅔ cup chickpeas overnight in cold water, drain and cook in fresh water with a sliced onions for approximately 30 minutes, or until just cooked. Make almond milk using 2 tbsp. ground almonds blended with ½ cup hot water, strain. Drain chickpeas and onions and return to saucepan with almond milk. Cover and simmer gently for five minutes, until chickpeas are soft and liquid has been absorbed. The onion and almond milk will combine to make a thick sauce. Season with Salt, fresh pepper, and ¼ tsp. ground ginger, blend in 1 tbsp. verjuice, and chopped herbs: parsley, basil, mint and marjoram.
Spiced Pomegranate Drink
...then leave the bath and partake of a brew prepared with pomegranate seeds, sugar, many spices, and a touch of hot spices like clove and mace, or a syrup of rose or sorrel, with water of oxtongue,...
1 quart of Pomegranate juice
4 cups white sugar (or honey)
Possible additions include: clove, mace, borage, mint, citron leaves,
spikenard, lemon peel, and canel or cinnamon.
Warm the pomegranate juice over medium heat. Add the sugar, stirring to dissolve completely. Keep the mixture at a simmer for about 2 hours, stirring occasionally. When it is suitably thickened, allow to cool before bottling. Dilute about one part syrup to five parts water. The resulting drink will be more brownish than the original red of pomegranate.
Dissolve 4 cups sugar in 2 1/2 cups of water; when it comes to a boil add 1 cup wine vinegar. Simmer 1/2 hour. Add a handful of mint, remove from fire, let cool. Dilute the resulting syrup to taste with ice water (5 to 10 parts water to 1 part syrup). The syrup stores without refrigeration.
|The table decor included tussy-mussy's of silk flowers, pomander beads and tea candles.|
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