The foure lesser hotte séedes, ammi, amomum, smallage, yelow carrots.

 The foure lesser hotte séedes, ammi, amomum, smallage, yelow carrots.

Caveat: The information provided is for historical knowledge only.  These pages were created by a student of natural medicines and are provided as a comparative between modern usage and medieval usage. Do not gather or use wild plants/herbs if you cannot positively identify them and never use them without first consulting a physician. 

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Translated: The four lesser hot seeds, ammi [Ammi Majus], amomum [Sison amomum], smallage [Apium Graveolens], yellow carrots [Daucus Carota].

A nievve herball, or historie of plantes wherin is contayned the vvhole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of herbes and plantes: their diuers [and] sundry kindes: their straunge figures, fashions, and shapes: their names, natures, operations, and vertues: and that not onely of those whiche are here growyng in this our countrie of Englande, but of all others also of forrayne realmes, commonly vsed in physicke. First set foorth in the Doutche or Almaigne tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens, physition to the Emperour: and nowe first translated out of French into English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer.

Dodoens, Rembert, 1517-1585., Lyte, Henry, 1529?-1607

At London [i.e. Antwerp: Printed by Henry Loë, sold] by my Gerard Dewes, dwelling in Pawles Churchyarde at the signe of the Swanne, 1578.

Of Ameos / or Ammi. Chap. xcij.   

Botanical name: Ammi majus
Common Name: bishop's weed, false bishop's weed, bullwort, greater ammi, lady's lace, false Queen Anne's lace, or laceflower, is a member of the carrot family Apiaceae. 

❀ The Kindes.

AMeos is of two sortes, according to the opinion of the Physitions of our time, that is the great Ameos, and the small.

❧ The Description.

[ 1] THe great Ameos, hath a rounde greene stalke, with diuers bowes & braunches, the leaues be large and long, parted into diuers other lit∣tle long narrow leaues, and dented rounde aboute. At the top of the stalke there groweth white starlike floures in great rundels, or spo∣kie tuftes, the whiche bringeth forth a small sharpe and bitter seede. The roote is white and threddie.

[ 2] The small Ameos, is an herbe very small and tender, of a foote long or som∣what more. The stalke is small & tender. The first and oldest leaues are long, and very much cut and clouen round aboute. The vpper leaues draw towards the proportion of the leaues of Fenell or Dill, but yet for all that they are smal∣ler. At the toppe of the stalke there groweth also in spoky littell tuffets or run∣dels, the small little white floures, the whiche afterwarde do turne into small gray seede, hoate and sharpe in the mouth. The roote is little and small.

❀ The Place.

These two herbes grow not in this countrie of themselues, without they be sowen in the gardens of Herborists. Neuerthelesse whereas they haue bene once sowen, they grow yearely of the seede whiche falleth of it selfe.

❀ The Tyme.

They floure in Iuly and August, and shortely after they yeelde their seede.

❀ The Names.

[ 1] The first kinde is called in Shoppes Ameos, by whiche name it is knowen in this countrie. The same as we thinke is the right, Ammi described by Dioscorides, who calleth it also Cuminum Aethiopicum, Cuminum regium, & as Ruellius saith, Cuminum Alexandrinum.

[ 2] The small is taken of diuers of the learned writers in our dayes, for 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Ammi, and therefore we haue placed it in this Chapter.

❀ The Nature.

The seede of Ameos is hoate and dry in the third degree.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] The seede of Ameos is very good against the griping payne and tormēt of the belly, the hoatepisse, and the strangurie, if it be dronken in wine.

[ B] It bringeth to wemen their naturall termes, and the perfume thereof, togi∣ther with Rosin and the kernels of Raysons, strowed vpō quicke coales, mundifieth and clenseth the Mother, if the same be taken in some hollow vessell or close stoole.

[ C] It is good to be dronken with wine, agaynst the bytings of all kindes of venimous beastes: they vse to mingle it with Cantharides, to resist the venim of the same bycause they should not be so hurtefull vnto man, as they are whan they are taken alone.

[ D] Ameos breyed and mengled with Hony, scattereth congeled bloud. and put∣teth away blacke & blew markes, whiche happen by reason of stripes or falles, if it be layde too in manner of a playster.

❀ The Daunger.

The seede of Ameos taken in to great a quantitie, taketh away the colour, and bringeth such a paalnesse, as is in dead bodies.

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The names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche [and] Frenche with the commune names that herbaries and apotecaries vse. Gathered by William Turner.

[Imprinted at London: By [S. Mierdman for] John Day and Wyllyam Seres, dwellynge in Sepulchres Parish at the signe of the Resurrection a litle aboue Holbourne Conduite, [1548]]

Ami.

Ami is called in englishe amy, of the poticaries ammeos, it groweth not in Englande, it groweth in many gardines in Ita∣ly and in Germany. It is hote and dry in the thirde degree.

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A nievve herball, or historie of plantes wherin is contayned the vvhole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of herbes and plantes: their diuers [and] sundry kindes: their straunge figures, fashions, and shapes: their names, natures, operations, and vertues: and that not onely of those whiche are here growyng in this our countrie of Englande, but of all others also of forrayne realmes, commonly vsed in physicke. First set foorth in the Doutche or Almaigne tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens, physition to the Emperour: and nowe first translated out of French into English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer.

Dodoens, Rembert, 1517-1585., Lyte, Henry, 1529?-1607

At London [i.e. Antwerp: Printed by Henry Loë, sold] by my Gerard Dewes, dwelling in Pawles Churchyarde at the signe of the Swanne, 1578.

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Warning: The root contains 8-methoxypsoralen, this stimulates the production of pigmentation in skin exposed to ultra-violet light, but it can cause side-effects. Use with caution. Skin contact with the sap is said to cause photo-sensitivity and/or dermatitis in some people.

Modern Usage: The seed is contraceptive (prevents pregnancy), diuretic (increased production of urine) and tonic (gives a feeling of well being). The seed contains furanocoumarins (including bergapten), which stimulate pigment production in skin that is exposed to bright sunlight. The plant is widely cultivated in India for these furanocoumarins which are used in the treatment of vitiligo (piebald skin) and psoriasis.

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Of stone Parsely (amomum [Sison amomum]). Chp. xliiij.

Botanical name: Sison amomum
Common Name: stone parsley, bastard stone parsley, hedge honewort, hedge honeywort, hedge stone parsley

❀ The Description.

THis Parlely hath meetely large leaues, seuered into sundrie partes, or diuers smal leaues, the which vpō eache side are deepe cut and fynely hackt or snipt round about. The stalkes be small of two foote long, vpō whiche growe small spokie toppes with white flowers, and after them a seede somewhat browne, not muche vnlyke the seede of the garden Parsely, but better, and of an aromaticall sauour, & sharper taste. The roote is small with many hearie stringes hanging thereat.

❀ The Place.

This kinde which is the right Parsely, groweth plentifully in Macedonia, in rough stony and vntoyled places, and also in some places of Douchland, that be lykewise rough stony and vntoyled. The Hetboristes of this Countrie doo sow it in their gardens.

❀ The Time.

This Parsely flowreth in Iuly, and yeeldeth his seede in August.

❀ The Names.

This strange (but yet the true Parsely) is called in Greeke μαϊντανός. and bycause it groweth plentifully in Macedonia, Petroselinon Macedonicon: in Latine, Petrapium, A∣pium saxatile, and Petroselinum, that is to say in English, Stone Parsely, in high Douch, Stein Epffich, or Stein Peterlin: in base Almagne, Steen Eppe. It is also called of some ignorāt Apothecaries Amomū: in Brabant they cal it, Vremde Peterselie, that is to say, Strange Parsly, the whiche without all doubt is the true Parsely, called by the name of the place, where as it groweth most plentifully, Parsely of Macedonie: the French men call it Persil de Roches and Persil vray.

❀ The Nature.

This Parsely is hoate and drie almost in the thirde degree.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] The seede of this Parsely moueth womens flowers, prouoketh vrine, breaketh and driueth foorth the stone and grauel togither with the vrine.

[ B] It dispatcheth and dissolueth all windinesse and blastinges, and easeth the gripinges of the stomacke and bowels: it is also very excellent against all colde passions of the sides, the kidneyes, and bladder.

[ C] It is also put with great profite in preparatiues, and medicines ordayned to prouoke vrine.

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The names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche [and] Frenche with the commune names that herbaries and apotecaries vse. Gathered by William Turner.

[Imprinted at London: By [S. Mierdman for] John Day and Wyllyam Seres, dwellynge in Sepulchres Parish at the signe of the Resurrection a litle aboue Holbourne Conduite, [1548]]

Sison.

Sison called of other Sinō, is the herbe whose seede the Poticaries in Anwerp vse for Amomo. Ther groweth a kinde of this besyde Shene, and it maye be called in englishe wylde Perseley. The best kinde groweth in Anthony the Poticaries gardine of Anwerp.

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Modern Usage: Carminative (relieves gas), diaphoretic (induces sweat), diuretic (increased production of urine).

Of Marish Parsely / March or Smallache. Chap. xlij.

Botanical name: Apium graveolens
Common Names: Marsh parsley, Marsh smallage, Wild Celery

The Description. 

Smallache hath shynyng leaues, of a darke greene colour, muche diuided, and snipt rounde about with small cuttes or natches, muche greater and larger then the leaues of common garden Parsely. The stalkes be rounde and full of branches, vppon the which grow spoky tufts or litle shadowy toppes with white flowers, which afterwarde bring foorth a very small seede, lyke to garden Parsely seede, but smaller. The roote is small and set full of hearie threddes or stringes.

The Place.

Smalllache groweth in moyst places that stande lowe, and is sometimes planted in gardens.

The Tyme.

Smallache flowreth in Iune and yeldeth foorth his sede in Iuly and August, a yere after the sowing thereof, euen lyke to garden Parsely.

The Names.

Smallache is called in Greke μικρό: in Latine, Apium palustre, & Paludapium, that is to say, Marrish Parsely: of some Hydroselinon agriō, that is, Wilde water Parsely, and Apium rusticum: in shoppes, Apium: in Frenche, De L'ache: in high Douche, Epffich: in base Almaigne, Iouffrouw merck, and of some after the Apothecaries Eppe: in Englishe, Marche, Smallache, and Marrishe Parsely.

The Nature.

Smallache is hoate and drie lyke garden Parsely.

The Vertues.

[ A] The seede and rootes of Smallage, in working are much like to the rootes and seede of garden Parsely, as Dioscorides writeth.

[ B] The iuyce of Smallache doth mundifie and clense corrupt and festered sores, especially of the mouth and throte, mingled with other stuffe, seruing to the same purpose.

[ C] Smallache, as Plinie writeth, is good against the poyson of Spiders.

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De Apio. Smalache or stammarche. Cap. viii: (The grete herball )

THere be dyuers maners of Apium or Smalache  as shall be shewed here after /but we speake of the comune. Fyrst it is hote in the begynnynge of the thyrde degre /and drye in the myddes of the same. It is a comune herbe the sede therof is moost of vertue the rote is nexte and than the leues. And therfore whan it is founde in receptes. Recipi apij that is take smalache without addycyon.

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Modern Usage: aperient (relieves constipation), carminative (relieves gas), diuretic (increased production of urine), emmenagogue (increases menstrual flow), galactogogue (increases milk supply), nervine (used to calm nerves), stimulant (raises level of nervous activity in the body) and tonic (gives a feeling of well being).  The herb should not be given to pregnant women.

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Of Carrottes. Chap. xxxviij.

Botanical name: Daucus carota
Common Name: wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace, devil's plague

❀ The Kindes.

[ 1] THere be three sortes of Carrottes, yellowe and red, whereof two be tame and of the garden, the thirde is wilde growing of it selfe.

❀ The Description.

THe Yellow Carrot hath darke greene leaues, al cut and hackt, almost like the leaues of Cheruil, but a great deale browner, larger, stronger, and smaller cut. The stemmes be rounde, rough without, and hollowe 

Staphilinus syluestris. Wilde Carrot.within: at the highest of the stems growe great shadowie tuftes, or spokie toppes, with white flowers, & after them rough seede, in proportion not muche vnlike An∣nys seede. The roote is thicke and long, yellowe both without and within, and is vsed to be eaten in meates.

[ 2] The red Carrot is lyke to the afore∣sayde in the cuttes of his leaues, and in stalkes, flowers, and seede. The roote is lykewise long and thicke, but of a purple red colour both within and without.

[ 3] The wilde is not much vnlyke the gar∣den Carrot, in leaues, stalkes, & flowers. sauing the leaues be a little rougher, and not so much cut or iagged, & in the middle of the flowrie tuftes, amongst the white flowers groweth one or two little purple markes or speckes. The seede is rougher, and the roote smaller and harder then the other Carrottes.

❀ The Place.

[ 3] The wilde groweth in the borders of feeldes, by high wayes and pathes, and in rough vntoyled places.

❀ The Tyme.

Carrotes doo flower in Iune and Iuly, and their seede is rype in August.

¶ The Names.

Carrottes are called in Greeke καρότο: and in Latine Pastinacae.

[ 1] The first kinde is called Pastinaca satiua: of the later writers, Staphilinus Luteus: in high Douche, Zam Pastiney, Zam Pastinachen, and Geel Ruben: in French, Pastinade iaulne: in base Almaigne, Geel Peen, Pooten, and Geel wortelen: in Englishe, Yellowe Carrottes,

[ 2] The second kinde is also Staphilinus satiuus, and is called Staphilinus niger: in Frenche, Pastenade rouge: in high Douch, Rot Pastiny: in base Almaigne, Ca∣roten: in English, Red Carrottes.

And these two garden Carrottes are in sight lyke Daucus, described by Theophraste lib. ix. Chap. xv. and lyke to the herbe whiche Galen in his syxth booke of Symples nameth  Daucus Pastinaca.

[ 3] The wilde kinde is called in Greeke γαμπρός (?) : in Latine, Pastinaca syluestris: in Shoppes, Daucus, as we haue declared in the seconde booke, of some it is also named Pastinaca rustica, Carota, Babyron, and Sicha: in Frenche, Des Panaz, or Pastenade sauuage. in high Douche, Wild Pastnach, or wild Paste∣ney, and Vogelnest: in base Almaigne, Vogels nest, and Croonkens cruyt: in Englishe, Wilde Carrot.

The Nature.

The roote of Carrottes is temperate in heate and drynesse. The seede ther∣of, especially of the wilde kinde is hoate and drie in the second degree.

The Vertues.

[ A] Carrot rootes eaten in meates, nourishe indifferently well, and bycause it is somewhat aromaticall or of a spicelyke taste, it warmeth the inward partes, being eaten moderately: for when it is to muche and to often vsed, it engen∣dreth euill blood.

[ B] The rootes of Carrottes, especially of the wilde kinde, taken in what sorte soeuer it be, prouoke vrine, and the worke of veneri. And therefore Orpheus writeth, that this roote hath power to encrease loue.

[ C] Carrot rootes made into powder, and dronken with Meade or honied wa∣ter open the stoppinges of the liuer, the melt or splene, the kidneyes & raines, and are good against the Iaunders and grauel.

[ D] The seede of wilde Carrot prouoketh womens flowers, and is very good agaynst the suffocation and stiflinges of the Matrix, being dronken in wine, or layde to outwardly in manner of a pessarie or mother suppositorie.

[ E] It prouoketh vrine, and casteth foorth grauel, and is very good agaynst the strangurie, and Dropsie, and for suche as haue payne in the syde, the belly and raynes.

[ F] It is good against all venome, and agaynst the bitinges and stinginges of venemous beastes.

[ G] Some men write, that it maketh the women fruitfull that vse often to eate of the seede thereof.

[ H] The greene leaues of Carrottes brused with hony and layde to, doo clense and mundifie vncleane and fretting sores.

[ I] The seede of the garden Carrot, is in vertue lyke to the wilde Carrot, but nothing so strong, but the roote of the garden Carrot, is more conuenient and better to be eaten

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De Dauco. Dawke. Ca. C.xliii. ((The grete herball )


DAucus Dawke is hote and drye in the thyrde degre it is a comyn herbe and hath a large floure & in the myd¦dle therof a lytel red pricke It groweth in drye places agaynst dyches and pyttes and hath two sortes one is called daucus creticus bycau¦se it groweth in Crete. The other is called daucus asininus bycause asses and other beestes ette it. Daucus creticus is best but bycause it is not moche founde here the other is vsed in stede of it. The moostvertue is in the floure and the herbe for ye rote is nought it ought to be gadred whā it bereth floures. The rote must be cast away  and the herbe hanged in a shadowed place to drye. It kepeth good one yere. It hath vertue to sprede to waste and to dymysshe humours by the qualytees & hath vertue dyurytyke by the subtylyte of the substaunce.

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Warning: Take great care when collecting D. carota ssp. carota. To an untrained eye it can appear very similar to the deadly poisonous hemlock (Conium maculatum), water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) and fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium). When young the stems of D. carota ssp. carota are covered in small hairs, where the stems of Conium maculatum are hairless and often covered in purple blotches.  The herb should not be given to pregnant women.


Modern Usage: anthelmintic (destroy parasitic worms), Carminative (relieves gas), diuretic (increased production of urine), emmenagogue (increases menstrual flow), galactogogue (increases milk supply), ophthalmic (related to the eye),  stimulant (raises level of nervous activity in the body)


Sources

The grete herball whiche geueth parfyt knowlege and vnderstandyng of all maner of herbes [and] there gracyous vertues whiche god hath ordeyned for our prosperous welfare and helth, for they hele [and] cure all maner of dyseases and sekenesses that fall or mysfortune to all maner of creatoures of god created, practysed by many expert and wyse maysters, as Auicenna [and] other. [et]c. Also it geueth full parfyte vnderstandynge of the booke lately prentyd by me (Peter treueris) named the noble experiens of the vertuous handwarke of surgery. (2020). Retrieved 22 September 2020, from https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A03048.0001.001/1:8.3?rgn=div2;view=fulltext;q1=herball

A nievve herball, or historie of plantes wherin is contayned the vvhole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of herbes and plantes: their diuers [and] sundry kindes: their straunge figures, fashions, and shapes: their names, natures, operations, and vertues: and that not onely of those whiche are here growyng in this our countrie of Englande, but of all others also of forrayne realmes, commonly vsed in physicke. First set foorth in the Doutche or Almaigne tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens, physition to the Emperour: and nowe first translated out of French into English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer. (2020). Retrieved 30 August 2020, from https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A20579.0001.001/1:15?rgn=div1;submit=Go;subview=detail;type

The names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche [and] Frenche with the commune names that herbaries and apotecaries vse. Gathered by William Turner. (2020). Retrieved 30 August 2020, from https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A14052.0001.001/1:3.21?rgn=div2;view=toc;q1=herbal

Prepositas his practise a vvorke very necessary to be vsed for the better preseruation of the health of man. Wherein are not onely most excellent and approued medicines, receiptes, and ointmentes of great vertue, but also most pretious waters, against many infirmities of the body. The way how to make euery the said seuerall medicines, receiptes, and ointmentes. With a table for the ready finding out of euery the diseases, and the remedies for the same. Translated out of Latin into English by L.M. (2020). Retrieved 30 August 2020, from https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A09920.0001.001/1:4.66?rgn=div2;submit=Go;subview=detail;type=simp

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