Science meets health, food and medicine - Understanding Medications in the Elizabethan Era

 I cannot take credit for this.  I found this section of the books above fascinating while researching an absolute rabbit hole.  We forget sometimes that food was medicine, and that all things had specific properties relating to health.  Thank you to the University of Michigan for having these books available to help further our knowledge and understanding. 

THE THIRD BOOK OF THE IDEA OF PRACTICAL PHYSICK.

Touching Medicaments.

Title, I. Of Medica∣ments in General.

HAving already spoke of the preternatural disorders which afflict the Body of Man, it fol∣lowes that we should now speak somwhat of their Remo∣val. Now touching their re∣moval, two things are considerable,

  • 1. By what Meanes they may be removed.
  • 2. How and in what manner they ought to be removed.
The Meanes are termed Medicaments, which are considered either in general or in special, and according to their differences. A Medica∣ment in General, is whatever being applied to a Sick Body, is of Ability, by its faculties, to reduce the same from a Preternatural, to its natural state and condition.

Concerning which, five things are considera∣ble. The Name, Faculties, Dose, Adultera∣tion, Substitution and Collection.

I. If we consider he Name, you must know that we understand not the word Medi∣cament in the most common acceptation, for so it comprehends poisons and paintings or Fu∣cuses; but in reference to mans body, and that either generally considered, forasmuch as it nei∣ther nourishes nor destroyes the same; or spe∣cially, forasmuch, as it is troubled with sick∣ness.

II. The faculties of Medicaments are,

  • 1. Manifest and either the first, Heating, Cooling, Drying, Moistening, which are sometimes compounded; or the second, which arise from the first, and vary in divers respects, so that they are certaine Modes thereof, as, Attenuate∣ing, Abstersive, Deobstructive, Rarefactive, Discussive, thickning, astringent, repelling, stupifying &c.
  • 2. Hidden, in respect of which, Medicaments do either by a peculiar faculty evacuate some particular humor; or they have some peculiar affinity with some member; or they resist poison.
Observe,
  • I. Touching their faculties in General.
    • 1. That they spring from their forms, and the formes act by them as by Instruments, and therefore the faculties as they are referred to the Actions,are termed certain effective causes, by media∣tion of which the formes act upon a determi∣nate Body.
    • 2. That they are either actual∣ly in the subject, so as presently to operate, as burning is in fire. Or potentially, when the medicant needs the Heate of the body to bring it into act, which is done sooner or later, either in respect of the matter resisting, and the Heat acting, or in respect of impediments of the matter, whereby its actions are bound up.
    • 3. Or they operate by accident, some other thing intervening, as cold water stirs up Heat in the Convulsion: or of your selves, and im∣mediately.
  • II. Concering the first faculties.
    • 1. That sometimes they are equally in one and the same subject, so that either they are al equal, or two equal, and one unequal.
    • 2. That the Inequalities which are, do more or less de∣part from Temper. Those of the first degree, do alter a temperate body so, as the alteration is hardly discerned. Those of the second de∣gree make evident alteration, but without hurt. Those of the third degree, alter vehemently and not without some hurt. Those of the fourth, with evident Hurt.
    • 3. That moi∣sture, which of al qualities is least active, cannot be of the fourth degree.
    • 4. Things vehe∣mently hot, do never moisten.
    • 5. Nothing dries in the fourth degree, but it likwise burns; in the third degree many do, which are cold and astringent.
  • III. Touching occult Quali∣ties, that they depend upon hidden properties springing from the former. Now the soule as being Architectrix of her own House, produ∣ces this inferior Forme, to be as it were her subject matter in a wel disposed body, which though it informe its who! matter, yet it cheif∣ly resides in the radical moisture, implanted spirit, and inbred Heat, which is even in dead bodies, and it may therewith be separated from the rest of the gross body, and may right∣ly be termed a fift Essence.
  • IV. Touching their knowledg. The first are knowen by rea∣son and experience, the former of which is ta∣ken from the swiftness or slowness of the acti∣on, respect being had to the patient, from smels, tasts, colours, tangible qualities, age, place of production, operations and knowen vertues. The second qualities, the first being known, cannot remaine hid, as being their Handmaids. Hidden qualities are cheifly conjectured from similitudes or signatures, of which see Porta in his Phylognomonicks, and Crollius touching signatures.

III. The Dose is requisite in a medicament, for none works aright, unless given in just quantity. This is determinated with regard to the quality, part affected, and the sick Patient. Fit measured by us, with a graine, a scruple, a dram, an ounce, a pound, a spooneful, &c. By the ancients with a mystrum, a cyathus, an Acetable, a quartarie, anhemina, or cotyla, a sextorie, a congius, an urna, amphora and culeus.

IV. Adulteration, has chiefly place in out landish drugs, as Champhire brought from Borneum, is adulterated with fragments of stones or a certaine gum called chambderros, like crude ambar, or the dust of a certaine wood. So Bezar-stone is many waies counterfeted. Mosch is mixed with a certatine stuf made of Goats blood, bread toasted and poudered, and the gum Ladanum. Amber-Grese is made up of the pouder of Lignum Aloes. Cinnamon is counterfeted, by barks of Tamariske steeped in Cinnamon water and then dried. Benzoin or Benjamin, by a mixture of Rosin, oliba∣num, and a little storax. Opobalsamum with Oile of Liquid ambar. Opium with Meconium.

V. The occasion of substitution, or useing Quid pro quo, is the want of some simples. So Calamus aromaticus is used in stead of acorus; Southernwood in place of wormwood; origa∣num for Southernwood; Hypocists for Acacia; an apple for Acanthus; Anise for Ammi; Acorus for Amomum; peach kernels for bitter al∣monds; sublimate for Arsenik; Schenant for Calmus Aromaticus; Cyperus for Carda∣momes; Vulgar Canella for Cinnamon; Figs of Marsellus for Dates; Sage for Dictamus; Elaterium for white Hellebore; Lapis Lazu∣lie for black Hellebore; Erysimum for Rocket; Poppine for Mandrake; Schenant for syrian Nard; Cloves for Nutmegs; Lovage roote for xylobalsamum &c. of which see Authors, especially Renodeus in the fourth Book of his Pharmacopeia, Chap. 16

Title, II. Of the sorts of Medicaments and their Differences.

Chap. I. Of simple Medica∣ments.

Article, 1. Of such Medicaments as are dug out of the Earth.

MEdicaments considered in their sorts are variously divided: howbeit the cheif differences are those which are taken from their constitution, qualities, and virtues, the parts of mans Body, the Planets and Signs of the Zodiack, to which Magical medicaments may be added.

In respect of their Constitution, Medicaments are Simple or Compound. I cal those Simple, which are such as nature has produ∣ced, having received no composition by art, but go into the composition of artificial me∣dicaments: and they are Fossilia, Vegetabilia, Animalia, or Microsmica. Fossilia, are such medicaments as are fetcht out of the Bowels of the Earth. Under this kind are contained, I. Earths, which wil dissolve when water is pou∣red upon them, such as.

  • 1. Argilla, potters clay, of very little, though some use in physick.
  • 2. Chalke, useful in want of appetite. Terra Lemnia, of a red coler and fat, so that held in the mouth it seemes to be made of suec.
  • 4. Bole Armeniack, or oriental Bole, which is counted best, if it wil presently rub in a mor∣tar to very fine pouder, and has no grittyness or sandiness in it. Red bole is the vulgar Bole of the Shops,
  • 5. Cimolia, either the white or that enclineing to purple; being fat, and cold to feele to, it is best.
  • 6. Terra Silesiaca, or strigensis, which Montanus found out.

II. Concrete or congealed juices, such as

  • 1. Salt, whether it be Sal gem, or Sea Salt; the former of which is dug out of Mines, and being thrown into the fire, it does not crackle, but takes flame.
  • 2. Nitre, as wel that of Dioscorides, of a rosie or white color, as the vulgar Sal Nitre or Salt peter so cald; the froath which by long boileing it sends forth, is termed Aphronitrum.
  • 3. Allum, especially roche or rock allum. For the Alumen scissile, or leader alum, which is not sensible of the force of fire, and Catinum made of the ashes of the plant Kali, are not in use. 'Tis called stip∣terion.
  • 4. Vitriol or Chalcantum, which is nothing else than a Coagulum of sulfurous, brazen or iron saltness. Se thereof Verbezius and Billichius in the first book of Chymical observations, Chap. 13. The white and na∣tive is counted best; when burnt, tis termed Colcothar.
  • 5. Sulfur, which if it be natu∣ral, it is shineing and transparent like a Glow∣worme, of a light ash color without, and yel∣low within: if made by Art, it is very fat and greenish.

III. The several sorts of Bitumen, such as

  • 1. Haphtha, strainings of Babylonian Bi∣tumen, fluid, white, extreamly apt to take fire.
  • 2. Petroleum, as if you should say, oile out of a rock, which is gathered in the country about Modena in Lombardy.
  • 3. Spermaceti, or a whiteish ambar, the Creame of the Sea. 'Tis collected in the Sea, being a faty and branny foam thereof. Choose that which is white, fat, &c.
  • Ambar-greife, which is cast out of the Channels of the Sea upon the shoare, & growes hard by lying in the Aire. The best is of an Ash-color most fragrant, which being prickt with a pin, sweates out much fat moisture. That which is made by Art is commonly black, and put in water, grows quickly soft.
  • 5. Succinum or amber, cal∣led citrine or yellow amber, Electrum, Carabe, is found in shallow parts of the Sea, and on the shoares thereof. The white is lighter, fra∣granter, and better; the yellow, is also good, if transparent, and if being rubbed it smel like Rosemary. See thereof Libavius.
  • 6. Ga∣gates, jeat, is black, crustie, and ful of Bitu∣men; if set on fire, it flames, smells like bitumen, and so it is distinguished from pit coales.

IV. Stones, such as are.

  • 1. Among the more precious sort.
    • 1. The Smaragd, of which the Scytian is best, being of one color, and that a light Green.
    • 2. The Sapphyr, which if it be of an azure color is best; if of a watrie color, 'tis of smal esteem. 'Tis found in Zeilan, Calcut and Pegu.
    • 3. The Ru∣bine; of which there are four kinds. The true and best sort, is of the color of Indian Lac or Scarlet, the slightest are the Balassius and Spi∣nellus.
    • 4. The granate, which is best if it have the color of a march violet, mingled with the red.
    • 5. Sardius, which is common∣ly found at Sardis, and thence has its name; is most approved, when reddest.
    • 6. Hemati∣tes or Bloodstone, greenish, party color'd, sprinkled over with bloody spots.
    • 7. The Nephrithickstone, dark, party color'd, min∣gled of green and other colors, its surface seems alwaies fat.
    • 8. The Chrysolite, which is ei∣ther Oriental, or Europaean. The former is soft, and has a golden color, with more or less blackness.
    • 9. Chrystallus, which is then best when most transparent.
    • 10. The Hyacinth, which is the better for being but one only color, The worst is the Arabian.
  • II. Among the less precious sort are.
    • 1. Lapis lazuli, which is of a dark azure color, adorned with golden streaks, or specks.
    • 2. Lapis Armenius, which is variegated with many green and blew spots, and some blackish ones, the Sky color'd is preferred before the deeper blew.
    • 3. Lapis judaicus, roundish, with equi-distant streaks al along, as if so turned by Art.
    • 4. Lapis Lyncis, cald also Belemnites, is of a pyramidal shape, and is found of divers colors.
    • 5. Mag∣nes, or Heracleus, so much the better by how much more Sky color'd and hoary.
    • 6. Osteo∣colla, which is of the shape of a bone, and is also termed Holosteus.
    • 7. Silex, a flint, a wel known stone.
    • 8. Talcum, a stone like the Lapis specularis, but more thin, scaly, greenish, resisting the fire, and fixed: which also some relate of the Osteocolla.
    • Ʋnicornu fossile, or a stone which in color and smoothness and frequently in the very shape resembles an horn.
  • III. Among those taken out of Living Creatures.
    • 1. Coral, especially the red. That is counted the best which is of a flourish∣ing color, smelling like Sea weeds, branchy, brittle; not the rough scabby and hollow.
    • 2. Lapis sponguis, which grows in spunges, being porous, friable, and of a white or gray color.
    • 3. Alectorius, or Cock-stone, that's most esteemed, which has appearing therein as it were a crum of meat congealed, pretty bright in appearance.
    • 4. Chelidonius, the swallow stone, which is Hemisphaerical, and alwaies hollow within.
    • 5. The Carpie stone, which is triangular, and is found about the beginning of the dorsal Marrow.
    • 6. Crabs eyes, a thing wel known.
    • 7. Ʋnbilicus marinus, which is found in the Orifice of a snail, when it shuts it selfe up in the winter.
    • 8. Lapis Cayma∣num, which is taken out of the Bellies of Cro∣codiles or mighty lizards in America.
    • 9. Lapis porcinus, Hogstone, which is found in the Gall of Hogs near Mallacca.
    • 10. Perch stone, found in the fish so called: now there are two found in the said fish, white, oblong, plane, toothed on the one side.
    • 11. Bezoar stone, of which kind the Oriental are praised, the Persian, such as are blackish green, whose under crust shines, when the uppermost is ta∣ken away. The true bzoar is known, in that being rubbed with chalk it becomes of a yello∣wish green; or being steeped in water three hours, it becomes no heavier than it was be∣fore.
    • 12. Aetites, Eagle stone, which is said to be carried by the Eagle into her Nest; of which see Laurembergius.

IV. Metals, which are either natural.

  • 1. Gold, which the chymists cal Sol, the Sun. The best is that of Arabia, the next that of Hungaria, the next to that the Rhenish.
  • 2. Silver, which the Chymists term Luna and Cerebrum, the Moon and Brain.
  • 3. Tin, which the Chymists cal Jupiter: The purest is found in England.
  • 4. Brass, or Copper, which the Chymists term Venus, the best is in Cy∣prus.
  • 5. Iron, which the Chymists cal Mars: the best is that of Damascus, and the Spanish.
  • 6. Lead, or Saturne.
  • 7. Quicksilver, or Mercury, the Idol of Chymists, which comes out in drops from the Clods of many Mines.
To these ad Stibium or Antimonium, the Cure and torment of the Hermeticks, which was of old, sold as it was dug up, but now it is tryed first. II. Or Artificial, as are.
  • 1. Scoria, or the dross which comes when the Oar is tryed in the furnace.
  • 2. Cadmia fornacum, viz. That which cleaves to the roof of the Furnaces when the oar of metals is tryed. The best is, that which is afforded by the furnaces of Cyprus.
  • 3. Pomphodix Nihili, or Tutia; which is a volatil spark which flows from melted Brass. The best is the white and smooth, that of Cy∣prus is most commended.
  • 4. Spodium, un∣derstand that of the Greeks, and not of the A∣rabians; and it is nothing but a clot of sparkles or ashes which fly in the melting of brass, and quickly fal to the ground.
  • 5. Flos aeris, to which ad verdigrease and the scales of b••ss.
  • 6. Cerus, which is drawn out of lead, with the help of vineger. The most esteemed is that of Rhodes and of Puteolum.
  • 7. Cinnabaris, which comes from the Shops of the Quicksilver Men.
  • 8. Literidge, or the thinner dross of silver purged from the plumbaginous matter, which is blown out by blast of the Bellows.

Article, II. Of Vegitable Medicaments.

Vegitable Medicaments are, trees, shrubs, and herbs; inasmuch as they serve to remove the disorders of the Body, either in whol or in part, viz. By their roots, woods, barkes,
leaves, tops, flowers, fruits, and humors.
I. Those Trees are.

  • I. Aple-bearers, as the Apple tree, the Quince tree, the Citron tree, the Orenge tree, the Peach tree, the pear tree, the Fig tree, the Sycomore tree, the Mulbery tree, the Crab tree, the Medlar tree, the Service tree, the Apricock tree, the Malacotone tree, the Damsin tree, Myrobalan∣plum tree, the Sebesten tree, the Jujubee tree, the Cornel tree, the Lotus, the Cherry tree, to which we may ad the Ebeny and the Guaiacum trees.
  • II. The Nut-bearers, the Almond tree, the Walnut tree, the Hasel tree, the Filberd tree, The Chestnut tree, the Pistachio tree, Glans unguentaria tree, the Styrax tree, to which many out-landish Nuts, must be referred.
  • III. Date-bearers, such as the Palme,
  • IV. Mast-bearers, as the Beech, the Oake, The Cork, the Suber, the Ilex and Smilax of the Arabians, whereunto also belong Misletoe, Galls and Oake apples.
  • V. Berrie-bearers, as the Sanders tree, The Mastick tree, the Frankincense tree, the Terpentine tree, the Balsam tree, the Sumach tree, the Cocconilea, the Ash tree, the Holme tree, the Linden tree, the Wild vine, the Ostrys tree, the Cotton tree the Maple, the Plantane, the Sassafras, the Ricinus, the Barbery tree, the Gooseberry tree, the Elder, the Laurel and bay tree, the Chame∣lea, the Thymelea, the Cheoron, the Myrtle, the Butchers Broome, the Rasberry tree, the Box tree, the Olive tree, the Agnus castus tree, the Privet; the Primprint, the Philyra, the White bramble, Box thorne, the black berry bush, the Capat tree, the Savine tree, the Cedar tree, the Cypress tree, the Juniper tree, the Asparagus, the Eugh, and Dragon tree.
  • VI. Spice-bearers, the Nutmeg tree, the Mace tree, Macer tree, the Cassia lignea or Canella, the Cinnamon tre the Folium tree, the Clove tree, the Peper tree, the Cubebes tree, the Amomum tree, the Graines of paradice tree, and the Cardamom tree. Hither also may Lignum Aloes tree be referred.
  • VII. Cod bearers, as the Cytisus, Anagyris, the Acacia the Aspalathus Genista or Brown, Spartium, Scorpius, Cliothen, Sena, Euonymus Nerion.
  • VIII. Cone bearers as the conebear∣ing Ceader, the Pine, the Larch tree, the Pitch tree, the Fir tree.
  • IX. Cotkin or cats taile bearers as the willow, the Alder, the Elme, which beares also bladders, the Poplar tree.
  • X. Rose bearers, the Rose tree, the Cistus and Cistus Ledum. &c.
  • XI. Brush trees, Tamar∣iske, Heath &c.

II Also Herbes are variously divided. For they are.

  • I. It we regard their roots, Bul∣bous, as the Bulbous flower delize, the stock gilloflower, Safron, Colchicum, the Onion, the Leek, the Squil, Garlik, Moly, Orchis or Cullions, and Satyrium or Dogs-stones &c.
  • II. If we consider their Leaves they are,
    • I. Long leaved and stalked, as Grass, Rushes, Nardus, Cyperus, Horstaile, the Reed, Pa∣pyrus or Egptian paper, Xyris, Orice, Acorus, Galangal, Ginger, Zedoary, Costus, &c.
    • 2. Thick-leaved as Houseleek, Venus navel, Aloes, Rhodia, Telephium, Purslane, Cepea Crithmum, Kali, Tragum.
    • 3. Hairie lea∣ved, Gromwel, Cynoglossum, or Hounds tongue.
    • 4. Nervy leaved as Gen∣tian, Plantan, Flea wort, Bistort, Pond weed, Water-lilly, Cucko-pintle, Heliebore &c.
    • 5. Round leaved, the two Birth∣worts, Colts foot, Broad dock, Bur dock, Asarum.
    • 6. Hair like, as Phyllitis, Hemi∣onitis, Asplenium, Lunaria, Maiden haire, Polytrichum, Wal rue, Ros-solis, Ferne, Poly podie, and others.
    • 7. Thorny or prick∣ly, as the Thistle, Scolymus of Theophrastus Venus bason, Eryngos, Euphorbium, Dra∣gant &c.
    • 8. Three leaved, five leaved &c.
    • 9. Soft leaved as Marsh mallowes, Mercury, Rhubarbe. &c.
  • III. If they beare flowers they are.
    • 1. Turn crowned and helmet fashiond, as Mints, Calamints, Origanum, Penyroyal, Hyssop, Time, Stechas of Arabia, Lavendar, Vulgar spike, Ground pine, Oake of Jerusalem, Sage, Nettle, Betony, Eye bright, Scrophularia, Prunella, Hedge hyssop, Dictamnus &c.
    • 2. Star fashioned, as Ru∣bia, Gallion, Cruciata, Rue.
    • 3. Spur fashiond or lark heeld, Aquilegium, Roial Comfrey, Toad flaxe &c.
    • 4. Button tufted, as Cumin, Fenel, Dil, pellitory, Fennel∣giant, Thapsia, Turpit, Hogs-fennel, Carot, Chervil, Smallage, Angelica, Imperatoria, Laserpitium, Panax, Caraway, Coriander, Anise, Pimpernel, Myrthis, Hemlock, Lo∣vage, Filipendula.
    • 5. Berry bunched Ele∣campane, Pellitorie, Mugwort, Sneezwort, Wormwood &c.
    • 6. Headed, Scabious, Jacea, Cyanus, Scorzonera, Caltha, Succisa, Cardus, &c.
  • IV. If Fruit, they are
    • 1. Apple-bearers, Mandrake, Cucumber, Melon, Pompion, Anguria, Gourd, Coloquintida, wild or Ass cowcumber.
    • 2, Codded, as are besides the pulses, and the pot-herby sort, Hedysarum, Ornithopodium, Polygala, Onobrychis, Galega, Glycyrthize, Fumitory, Cesondine, Aquilegia, Nigella.
    • 3. Case carriers, Garden Cresses, Shephards-pouch, Scurvy grass, wild radish &c.
    • 4. Vessel-bearers, as Centorie, Mouse eare, Flax, St. Johns wort, Anagallis, Mo∣ny wort, Rupture wort, Poppie &c.
  • V. If we regard their use, they are.
    • 1. Cornes, as Wheate, Spelt, Barley, Rie, Oates, Blasted Corne, Rice, Milium, Panicum, Phalaris, Indian Corne.
    • 2. Kitching hearbs, as Rapes, smal turneps, Iberis, Taragan, Campanula, Rapistrum, Rocket. Mustard, Alliaria, Cole wort, Docks, and Patientes, Betes, Blites, Centaury the greater, Orach, Pellitorie, Mercurie, Lettice, sowchistle, Cichory &c.
    • 3. Pulses which are gathered, as Beanes, French Beanes, Pease, Tares, Fetches, Lentils, Orobus, Cicer, the Lupine, Fenugreek &c.
  • VI. If the manner of growing, there are convolvuli or Scandentes, such as twist themselves about other plants or props and so reare themselves as are besides apple bearers and the pulses, Scammony, Soldanella, Salsaparilla China, Bryonie, Mechoacan, Hops, the Grape vine, Lilly Convally, Ivy, Indian, Watercresses, Birthwort, Bindweed, Gramen parnassi, Saxifrage &c.
  • VII. If their juice, some are milkie plants, as Tithymallus, Esula, Peplus, Peplis, Lathyries, and Chamasyce &c.
  • VIII. If their place, in which they grow, they are 1. Garden wood, Feild, Mountaine, Meadow and water plants, as are Moss, Duck weed, Lungwort, Sea nettle, Sea weed, Arsmart, Anagallis, &c.
  • IX. If we regard the virtues, we shal find in a manner infinite differences of Hearbs; of which I shal speak hereafter, as much as wil serve for our present purpose; and more largely and exactly, elsewhere,

III. The Humors of plants are best distinguished into thickned juces, Gums, Rosins, and Pitch.

I. Thicked juices are,

  • 1, Ammoniacum, which is named from the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, tis bred in a tree called Metopion. That is most approved which is sincere and unmixed and condensed into clotters like Frankinsense, smelling somewhat like Casto∣rium, Bitter in tast, yellow without, white within, growing soft if it be wrought between the Fingers.
  • 2. Galbanum, the juice of a Ferulous plant which grows in Syria. The best is gristly, yellow, fat, not woody, of a strong ungrateful smel, because it retains in it some of its seeds and sticks.
  • 3. Opopanax, a juice flowing out of the root of Hercules his Allheale, That is most esteemed, which is white within, yellow without, bitter, strong sented, fat, milkie like Galbanum, and when it is melted resembling a milkie liquor.
  • 4. Sagapenum, or Sera-pinum, the liquor of an herbe like fenelgiant growing in Media. Thats best which is sincere, transparent, red without, within when it is broken, yellow, or compact of yellow or whiteish drops, growing soft between the singers.
  • 5. Opium, or a milkie liquor running from the stalke of a black pop∣pie lightly gashed. The best is that which is white, or yellowish like the Haires of a Lions-skin, congealed into a Mass as it were made up of little graines of divers colors, dirty and of a strong and virulent smel.
  • 6. Aloes, which is either Caballina, or Hepatica, or Socatrina you must choose that which is far, void of Stones, friable in winter, soft in summer, compact like the substance of the Liver.
  • 7. Scammony, which is reserved of a milkie roote being cut, out of which it runs and is dried. Thats best which is transparant, ful of holes like a spounge, and when it is rubbed against the tongue it shewes a white liquor on its surface, resembling milke.
  • 8. Elaterium, or the juice of the wild Cowcumber thickned, which is the most lasting of al medicaments; and that is best which is oldest.
  • 9. Euphorbium, or a most sharp biteing juice of a tree, resembling the ferula. That must be chosen which is pure, transparent, white or yellow, and biteing, and which being lightly toucht with the tongue, inflames the mouth a long time after.
  • 10. Juice of Lycorize, which is drawen out of the roots, and is condensed into Balls-or little cakes.
  • 11. Succus Acaciae, a juice prest out of Acacia a plant in Egypt. Choose that which is moderately yellow and odoriferous.
  • 12. Acacia Germanica, or the juice of boiled sloes, prest out, set in the Sun, and dri∣ed.
  • 13. Manna, which is gathered in Ca∣labria from the Ashen trees. Choose that which is white and not above a yeare old. 'Tis counterfeted by sugar pemies wrapt up in leaves of herbes.
  • 14. Gummi Gotte, or Cambogia, Gummi Gamandra, Gummi de peru, which is extracted out of the Indian Ricinus. See thereof Reudenius, Lotichius, and Bontius in his Medicina Indorum.

II. Gumms are,

  • 1. Gum Arabick; the best is transparent like Glass, unmixt, in crinkled bits representing wormes, and white.
  • 2. Gum tragant, which drops out of the root of thorny plants, which the Greeks cal Traga∣cantha. 'Tis transparent, white, sweetish, light and sincere.
  • 3. Sarcocolla, the teare of a tree growing in Persis, like fine franckin∣cense, yellowish and bitterish.
  • 4. Gummi Hederoea, of a yellowish red color, strong smell, and biteing tast.
  • 5. Cancamum, or the teare of an Arabian tree, somewhat repre∣senting myrrhe, of a very strong tast.
  • 6. Lacca officinarum. Gum lac of the shops, is made of the juice of a certaine tree, in Pegu and Malavar. Tis said to be made by the wing∣ed Pismires.
  • 7. Sanguis Draconis, Dra∣gons blood, or the juice of a certaine tree which being congealed, resembles dryed blood. It makes water of a milkie color, but without mixture.
  • 8. Assafetida, or the Teares of Silpheum growing in Libia and other Coun∣tries. Choose that which is unmixt, resemb∣ling Garlick in smel, and clammie. 'Tis adul∣terated by the mixture of meal, bran, and Saga∣penum.
  • 9. Champhire of the shops, or the Resinous Teare of a certaine high tree. Choose that which is white, transparent as christal, not spotted, fragrant, apt to crumble between the fingers, and which being set on fire, can hardly be quenched.
  • 10. Juniper Gum, drie, hard, yellow, like mastich. Liquid Varnish is made of it and Linseed oile. I forbeare to speake of Cherrie tree gum, Elme tree gum, &c.

III. Rosins are either moist or drie. The moist are.

  • 1. Terpentine, or a liquor which flowes from the Trunk and boughes of the tree Terebinthus. The best is white, trans∣parent, enclining to skie color, fragrant and biteing.
  • 2. Rosin of the Larch tree, or Ter∣pentine of the shops, which is many times sold for the former. The best is the purest, most fragrant, somwhat transparent, and which falls hastily and equally from the finger dipt into it.
  • 3. Maistich which flows from the Lentish tree, and seems referable to the Gum rosins. The best is white, shineing, fragrant, crumbly, and which growes in Chios. 'Tis counterfeited, with a mixiture of franckincense and Rosin.
  • 4. Olibanum of the shops, or the liquor of an Arabian tree. The cheife is the male, that which drops out, round, white; the next in value is the Orobium, which growes in Amelum, which is smaller and yel∣lower; the next to that is Amomites, which is white, and yeildes to the fingers when it is softned, like mastich.
  • 5. Myrrhe, or the Tear of a tree which growes in Arabia, like the Egyptian thorne, which tree being cut it drops downe upon mats spread beneath. The Tro∣glodytick myrrh is counted best, which is gree∣nish, transparent and biteing; the second in repute is thin and clammie like Bdellium; the third in value is that which is termed Caucalis, black and parched; the worst is the factitious whith lookes like Gum.
  • 6. Storox or the teare of a tree like a Malocotone growing in Syria. The best is yellow and fat, rosinie, with whiteish drops; which being wrought between the fingers, sends forth an honey-like moisture keeping the fragrancy of the lump. 'Tis adulterated by the dust of a tree which the worms have made by their gnawing.
  • 7. Li∣quid Ambar, or an oily rosin, of a most sweet and strong smel, flowing out of a certaine tree in the west Indies, called Ocosotle.
  • 8. Bdel∣lium, or the Teares of a tree in Bactria. That is most approved, which is bitter, trans∣parent, like Bulls-glue, fat within, and ea∣sily growing soft.
  • 9. Benjuinum or Ben∣jamin a gum flowing from the wounded boughes of a certaine tal tree in the East-In-dia's. The best has white spots in it resemb∣ling almonds, and grows in Zeilan.
  • 10. Ta∣camahaca, or a Rosin which flowes out of a wounded Tree which growes in Nova Hispa∣nia. In color tis like Galbanum, it has white nailes, a strong smel and tast, and sticks fast to the skin.
  • 11. Gummi Elemi, or a trans∣parent white teare, with yellow particles in∣termixt, reduced into a Mass; and rendring a sweet smel when its burnt. 'Tis brought out of Ethiopia. Dioscorides describes it yellow somewhat like Scammonie, and biteing.
  • 12. Colophonia of the shops is a dried rosin, of an oilie substance, yellowish, drie, and friable, being the remainders of the fir and pitch tree, when they are clarified by the fire, being thickned and hardned by cold. Choose that which is transparent, fragrant, and resembles the smel of franckincense when 'tis burnt.

III. 'Tis needless that I should ad any thing concerning pitch; Touching Plants consult the Theatrum Botanicum of Baubin, which is now comeing forth: to the more easie know∣ledg whereof my doctrine of Plants, and other Treatises, which in dispight of envie, I have in hand, shal lead thee.

But the knowledg of the Vertues of Plants, depends upon the signatures also, or simili∣tudes, which they seem to have, with the Parts, Humors, and Diseases, whether it happen in shape, which is in this case most considera∣ble, or only in sensible qualities, or in actions and manners &c. Howbeit, these notes are either Fixed, which are seen in seeds, Roots and Flowers: or movable, which are taken from Taft, Smel, Color, Shape, Hairyness, Smoothness, &.

1. As for the Parts of mans Body,

  • 1. The Head is represented by the Poppie, Wal-nut, Indian Nut, Peonie, Squil, Agarick, Lilly convallie.
  • 2. The Eyes, by the Graines of Herbe Paris, flower of Eye bright, Anthenis, Mary Gold, Hawkweed, Anemone, Scabi∣ous, &c.
  • 3. The Teeth, by Henbane without cods, stones of a pomegrannate, pine kernels, Toothwort, Leaves of Prick-Madam, foot of the smaller Celandine.
  • 4. The Eares, by Asarum and Garden Scurvigrass leaves.
  • 5. The Nose, by the leaves of Menastrum Aquaticum.
  • 6. The throat or wezand by Winter-green, Uvularia, Cervicariat and Cassia Fistularis.
  • 7. The Lungs, by stony lungwort, spotted Lungwort, lungwort of the Oak.
  • 8. The Heart, by pome-citrons, The roots of Anthora, The an∣acardine Beanes.
  • 9. The Liver, by Liver∣wort, the toad-stoole that growes upon Birch and Oake, the. Herbe Lichn.
  • 10. The Spleen; by Scolopendrium, Hearts-tongue, Lupines.
  • 11. The Stomach, by Bindweed, leaves, Ginger, Galingal.
  • 12. The gutts, by Bindweed, calamus aromaticus, Cassia Fistularis.
  • 13. The Navil, by Umbilicus Veneris.
  • 14. The bladder, by Alkekengi, Bladder wort, Colutea, nightshade.
  • 15. The Privites, by Cuckoes-pintle, Beanes.
  • 16. The Stones, by several sorts of Orchis, Satyri∣um, Dracunculus, leekes, Stags pizzle.
  • 17. The wombe, by Aristolochia rotunda, round birth wort, Mace, Sabine.
  • 18. The Reines, by Purslane.
  • 19. The joints, by Her∣modactyls, Sarsa pariglia.
  • 20. The Hand by Palma Christi.
  • 21. The Haire of the Head, by the Moss of trees, and Maiden haire.

II. As for what concerns Humors.

  • 1. Cholor yellow, is represented by such plants as have flowers or juices of a yellow or Safron∣colour, as Aloe, Senna, Wormwood, Spurge Safron, Coloquintida, Rhubarbe &c.
  • 2. Leek-colored Choler, Blites, Orach.
  • 3. Pale Choler by Bryonie.
  • 4. Black-choler, by such whose flowers, Leaves or juice, are black∣ish purple, or Skie-colored, as Beanes, Lentils, Vetches, Borrage, Bugloss &c.
  • 5. Flegm, by white-flowered plants, as gourds, Lettice &c.
  • 6. Blood by such as are of a red color, or staind with a red color, as Red sanders China root, Fearne root, Sorrel root.

III. As for Diseases.

  • 1. The Stone is represented by Gromwel, white-Saxifrage root, nutshells and their kernels.
  • 2. Smal risings by Lentiles.
  • 3. Excrescences by Agaric, and Galls.
  • 4. The Jaundice by Celondine, Saffron, Centaurie.
  • 5. The Polipus, by the roots of the smaller Celondine and polypodie.
  • 6. Lentigines, specks or spots, by the white and speckled barke of the Birch-tree, and the Lichen which growes upon trees.
  • 7. Morphewes &c. by Garlick, Cucko-pintle, Arisarum, Arsmart, Lungwort &c.
  • 8. Wounds by Through waxe, Mille∣folium.

Article, 3 Of animal Medicaments.

Animal Medicaments, are such as are ta∣ken either from whole liveing Creatures, or some parts of them.

All Livewights are considerable in a five fold difference, for they are either birds or Four-footed Beasts, or Fishes, or Creeping things, or Bloodless-wights.

I. Of birds, among those that live on Land are.

  • 1. Carnivorous, that live on Flesh, The Eagle, the Vulture, the Hawk, the Kite, the Buzzard, the Cucko, the Falcon, Parrot, Crow, Jackdaw, the Chough, the Magpie, the Owle, the Batt, the Ostrich.
  • II. Plant feeders, and they are either.
    • 1. Scrapters in the dust, both wild, as the Peacock, Phea∣sant, Heath-cock, Bustard, Partrich, Quaile, Turkey-cock; and also tame, as the Cock and Hen.
    • 2. Or Scrapers and washers both, as the Dove, Turtle, Pigeon, Sparrow.
    • 3. Or singers, as the Linnet, Gold-finch, Thistle-finch, Thrush, Larke.
    • 4. Berry-feeders, as the Black-bird, Feldefare, &c.
  • III. In∣sect-eaters.
    • 1. That sing not, as the Pidan∣ner, the Titmouse, the Wood-pecker, the Wren, the swallow, the Lapwing, the Muskin, a dishwasher, a Redstart, a Robin-redbrest.
    • 2. That sing, as the Nightingal. Of those that live in the water.
      • I. Broad-footed,
        • 1. Fisheaters, the Pelicane, the Cormor∣ant, the Sea-mew, the plungeon, the Sea∣gul, the Swimmer.
        • 2. Grass-eaters, The Swan, the Goose, the Duck, the Moot-hen.
      • II. Cloven-footed
        • 1. Flesh-eaters, the Storke, the Ibis, the Redwing, the Heron, the Porphyrie, the Kings fisher, the Ispis.
        • 2. Insect-eaters, The Arquata, the Crex, the Tocanus, Dab-chick, Scolopax, Tringa, Junco, Cinclus, vanellus, &c.
        • 3. Corn-eaters, as the Crane.

II. Fishes are,

  • I. Seafish, and they are
    • 1. either such as keep in the deepes, both scaled; as the stockfish, the Herring the Li∣paris: the Sea-bore, the Glaucus, the Horse∣tail, and the Smooth, as the Tunie, the Pompi∣lus, the Amia, the Sword-fish, the Remora, the Conger, the Lamprey: also the gristly long-shaped, as the Dogfish of Aristotle, the Galeus, the Catulus, the Sea-Weazel, the Star-Fish, the Blew-fish, the Thorn-back, the Sea-Ape, the Zigaena; and the plain flat sort, as the Torpedo, the Pastinaca, the Sea-Eagle, the Ray, the Sea-frog, the Sole, the Maid.
    • II. Or such as delight in stony places, the sca∣led, as the Gilthead, the Thrush, the Peacock, the Lepras, the Black-bird, the Phycis, the Sea-Perch, the Channe, the Liver-fish, the Black-tail, the Crow-Fish, Adonis, Sciana, Glaucus, Anthias, Lumpfish, Sphyraena, the Needle-fish, and the Smith-fish. Smooth, as the Sea-Lark, and the Pholis.
    • III. Such as hant the shoar, and they scaly, not flat, as the Mullet, the Swallow, the Cockoo, the Kite, the Harp-fish, the Phagrus, the Red-fish, the Acar∣nan, Orphus, Dentex, Synagris, Chromis, Gold∣fish, Sargus, Sparus, Mormyrus, Cantharus, Salpa, Scorpion, Blennus, Combefish, the Merlan, Anchoves, Atherina; Sarda, Menow, Smaris, and Ox-Eye. Scaled and flat, the Sole, the Place, the Flounder. Smooth, not plain, Sand Eels, Dragon, Little Dragon, the Stargazer, the Roughtaile, the Makarel, the Lizard, the Saurus, the Crow and the Kite. Smooth and plain, the Sparrow and the Rhombus.
  • II. Sea and River hanters, and they,
    • 1. Scaly, as the Salmon, the Pike, the Bream, the Alosa, Ziga of the River Albis, the Mullet, Goat fish, Sturgeon, and Galeus of Rhodes.
    • 2. Smooth, as the Huso, Sperlan, Lamprey, Eele and the Owl fish.
  • III. Ri∣ver fish, and they are,
    • 1. The Scaly sort, the Trout, Thymallus, Shade, Barble, the Pollard, Dace, Gudgeon, Rough, Millerthumb, Pho∣xmu, &c. Smooth, Attilus of the River Poe, Antacaeus of Poristhenes, Ishthyocolla, Glanis, Pver-Wezel, the Dig-fish, Phoxinus and Salmon.
  • IV. River and other fresh water fish, as the great Perch, the Scrollus, Pungitus of Albertus; Alburnus of Ausonius, Epelanus, Pike, Carp, Tench, &c.
  • V. Pond∣fish, the Umbla, Carp, Pond-Trout, the Lava∣ret, of Geneva, the Saractus, &c.

III. Four footed Beasts, are,

  • 1. Whol-Hooft as the Horse, the Ass, the Mule, Ele∣phant, Zebra & Unicorn.
  • 2. Clovenfooted, as the Elk, al kind of Oxen, the Camel, Panther-like Camel, Goat, Hart, Gulligut, Rangifer, Rhinoceros, and Hog.
  • III. Having divers toes, which are either such as bring forth Live-wights, as the Panther, Tigre, Bear, Wolf, River-Horse, Fox, Ax, Marmoset, Baboon, Badger, Castor, Otter, Pole-Cat, Weazel, Mars, Genesha, Hare, Conny, Squirrel, Dor∣mouse, Mouse, Mole, Hede-Hog, Ur∣chin, Cat and Dog: or, such as lay Eggs, whether the Egs be covered with a skin or a shel: as the Frog, Lizard, Eft, Salamander, the sported Neur, the Scincus, Cordilus, Cha∣melaeon, Ciocodile, and al kind Tortoises.

IV. Creeping things, or Serpents, both footless and footed, greater and lesser, as the Viper, Ammodits, Cerastes, Hemorrhoiis. Aspe, Dipsas, Scytale, Amphisbaena, Caecy∣lia, Cenchius, Acontias, Dryinus, Elope, the snake of Esculapius, Water-Serpent, Boa, Sea-Serpent, Sea-Scolopendra, the Dragon, Basilisk, Dragon of Sythius, the Flying Dra∣gon.

V. Bloodless wights, are distinguished in a five-fold manner.

  • I. The Soft, as Polypus Sepia, Loligo, Sea-Hare.
  • II. Crustieas, the Locust, Lobster, Squil, al kind of Crabs, and al crusty Shel-fish.
  • III. Shelly, as Nauti∣lus, Purpura, Murex, Buccinum, Turbants, Tops al Oisters, Pearl-fish, Lobstars, al kind of Snails, Sea-Combs, Mituli, Tellinae, Pinna, Bissus, &c.
  • IV. Plant-animals, of which see Authors.
  • V. Insects, which are either 1. Land-Insects both footed, as the Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Butter-fly, al kinds of Flies, the Cricker, Grashopper, Beetle, Pismire, Louse, Flea, Spider, Sow, Wood-louse; and without feet, as a worm, a Snaile. II. Or Water-Insects, as the Horse-Leech, Hippo∣campe, Sea-star, &c.

The Parts of Animals which are used in Physick, are either such as are common to al Sorts, or proper to every one. Of both which we shal treat elsewhere.

Article. IV. Of Medicines taken from the Body of Man, or the little World.

Microcosmick medicaments, are Medicines which are taken from the body of Man, to cure the infirmities of Mans body.

These medicaments are taken our of a Live Man, or from a dead man. From a live man, we have Hairs, Nails, Spittle, Ear-wax, Milk, Seed, Blood, Menstrual Blood, Secondines, U∣rine, Dung, Lice, Wormes, Stones of Bladder & Kidneyes, &c. From a dead man, Skin, Fat, Scul, Bram, Teeth, Bones Mummy; of which see Daniel Beckerus in his Medicus Micro∣cosmus, and Hartman.

〈1 page missing〉sacra-dropsied, Dysenteric, Asthmatick, men∣struate or Rein-exulcerated persons.

 

  • 2. In respect of the time, if they are not durnk when they are altered, if not in the winter Season, unless upon extraordinary occasion and al things suitable; if they are given to drink when their signs argue them to be at the best, if cheifly in the spring, morning and evening, if in their place of springing, or not far off.
  • 3. In respect of the use of things foregoing, if the body be prepared with a Lenitive, blood-leting, opening of the passages, driving away hurt∣ful Humors.
  • 4. In respect of the Ʋse of things circomstantial, if they be so drunk, as to rise by little and little to the highest dose, and to stop there a while, and so to descend by little and little to the lowest Dose; if the measure pre∣scribed be divided into parts, if good diet be observed &c.
  • 5. In regard of things follow∣ing their use; if the Body be duly stirred. If diligent consideration be had, which way na∣ture inclines; that is to say, whether they are like to work by stool, Urin, or Transpiration, or by many waies at once; if being retained, they may be brought away by convenient Cly∣sters; if such Symptomes as usually occur, be provided against.

IV. How there are many acid Fountains, and medicinal springs in Europe, the chief of which are in Germany.

  • 1. The Spaw-Wa∣ters, and they are four Wels in number, Ge∣ronster, Rouhont, Savinire, and Tunnelet.
  • 2. Those of Greisbach at the Entrance of the Hercinian Forrest, which are seasoned with I∣ron, Vitriol, Christaline salt, Bitumen & Sul∣fur.
  • 3. The Petrine Wel in Alsatia, a quarter of a mile distant from the former, & is qualified by some minerals.
  • 4. Antegast Water, scituate at the Entrance of the Hircinian Wood, which is impregnated with Alum, Sulphure, and a little Vitriol.
  • 5. Ribelsave-water, by the said Wood, in the County of Furstenberg, which has in it the spirituous subtilties of Iron, Nitre, vitriol, Chalcit is, Bitumen.
  • 6. Gebresveil Water in the upper Alsatia, which is virtua∣red by Alom, Nitre, and Iron.
  • 7. Schwal∣back-Water.
  • 8. Egran Wel, in Bohemia.
  • 9. Nideraven Spring near Rottenburg.
  • 10. Denachen Wel in the Hercynian Forest.
  • 11. The Federan Wel in Rhetia, which contains Alum and Coper, with a little Sulphur.
  • 12. Wels of Trevire, which are three, one of which runs through a yellowish earth and Iron.
I shal pass over the rest in silence. At this pre∣sent while I am writing, many things, and they truly, miraculous, begin to be reported of the Wels of Horn-Hause, in lower Saxnny. Touching those acid waters see Sebize, Bac∣cius, and others whom ye shal find in Vande Linden de Scriptis Medicis.

Article. II. Of Bathes

Bathes are hot waters, which bubble per∣petually out of the Earth, are heated by the Subterranan fire, and having gained Vertue from divers Minerals, they cure Diseases, be∣ing fitly used.

I. They are hot either at their Head, or in their Chanels; either more or less.

II. They leap and bubble out of the Earth, because they have their Rise in an high Place, either in Mountains, or at the foot of a Moun∣tain, as experience shews. They bubble up perpe∣tually, for the most part, because the Earth is al∣waies moist, and the subterraneal Heat does alwaies carry up vapors to the Concavities of Mountains, which where they cannot exhale, they are condensed, compressed, and turn into drops of water. Yet bathes are found, which rise & fal with the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea. Nor do they alwaies flow out at one place: be∣cause the sectet passages are either destroyed or stopped up.

III. The Heat of Bathes comes from the sub∣terraneal fire, which is kindled by an indiffe∣rent hot exhalation, thin and enflamed, getting among the Sulphur and Bitumen, by which it is fed. Either the waters run through those hot subterranean places, or in the way they are joined to the flames and Heat; or they run so long above or by the Channels, til they grow hot; or whiles the Earth grows hot by under∣ground fires, many vapors are from thence rai∣sed, which being at last, in some wide place tur∣ned to water, they do in one place or other seek an out-gate: or lastly, two or more metalline waters, being naturally cold to the touch, do in their converse grow hot through repugnancy of their Spirits; an example whereof we have in spirit of vitriol, and oyl, or salt of Tartar, also in Aquafortis and Tartar, in Butter of Anti∣mony and spirit of Nitre.

IV. Subterranean matters which virtuate the Bathes, are divers: partly minerals, part∣ly mettals; which may be gathered from the several Bathes. Now how that comes to pass, and how the Materials in them may be known, I shewed before.

V. The Diseases that are cured by them, are also various, the Colick, Mother-fits, Stone, 
Barrenness, Headache, &c. Some of which they cure directly, others by accident.

VI. They are used to drinke, for which in∣tent, they are bad, which have some hurtful metalline property in them; also to bathe, Foment, in stoves, and by application of their clay: of al which see besides Fallopius, Horstius and Rulandus in Balnearium re∣stauratum.

VII. The principle Bathes in Italy are, the Bathes of Padua, out of which the most fa∣mous bathes of Ebanus comes, made of a mix∣ture of sulphur, Alum, Nitre, Salt, and Chalk; the Porritan Baths, forty miles from Bononia; the Lucan, the cheife of which is that which is termed de Corseno; Sante Ma∣riae in Bagno, Situate in Romandiola, A queae in the County of Pisa, Petriolae, in the Duke∣dome of Sena, ful of alum; Grotinae, in the Earldome of Viterbium, which consist of iron & brass; Perusinae, which participate of a little Sulphur and Aphaltum; Montis Catim, which are all salt, &c. In Germany are com∣mended the Plumbariae, in Lorraigne, so cal∣led from the plentiful admixture of Lead; Badenses in Switzerland, which consist of much sulfer and a little Alum; Ferinae in the Dutchy of Wittemberge; Cellenses, not far from the Martian wood; Amenses, situate neare Ro∣tenburge; Embsenses, in the borders of the Lake of Constance; the Carolinae in Bohemia; the Wisbadenses situate not far from Mentz beyond the Rhene; Gastainences in Bawaria, which by vehement Astriction, do facilitate Conception; Abudiacae above Reginoburgum, which smel like fried Eggs, &c. See of all Rulandus and Weckerus. Of the Fountain of Bollen, very useful both in drink and bath∣ing, Johannes Bauhinus has written.

Chap. 3. Of Compound artificial Medicaments in General.

COmpound artifical medicaments are those which are by art made up of the simple, into a certaine forme, being first prepared and qualified thereto.

There are touching them considerable.

  • 1. The Necessity of the Composition.
  • 2. The structure.
  • 3. Preparation.
  • 4. Fermen∣tation.
  • 5. Division.

I. The necessity of compounding Medica∣ments appeares from these reasons following.

  • 1. The preternatural Disorders of the body, being many times compounded, cannot be cu∣red by simple Medicaments.
  • 2. The Parts affected in regard of their situation, tempera∣ment, conformation, dignity of their action, with the Constitution of the Patient, shew the need of compounding.
  • 3. The Quality of the medicament, which is sometime necessary to the Intention, but not proportioned to the disease; sometimes is too weake, other whiles too strong, or infected with an adverse quali∣ty; al which requires composition.

II. Touching the structure, observe.

  • 1. That the Manner thereof requires, that we have a precognition of the sort of Disease, and its magnitude, the condition of the sick, and of the part affected; also the natures, faculties, degrees, and doses of the simples.
  • 2. That the Medicament is then best accomodated, when it is just equal to the disease, both in quality, the propriety whereof must be determined by the particular Nature of the disease, & in degree which is measured by the greatness of the dis∣ease & the Nature of the part affected.
  • 3. That e∣very compound Medicament consists of five things.
  • I. the Basis which if considered in gener∣al.
    • 1. It is the measure of the faculty, degree, and dose of the compound.
    • 2. It varies, accor∣ding to the times of a disease, the urgent symp∣tomes, nature of the part affected, constituti∣on of the sick, Quantity and quality of the other ingredients.
    • 3. It takes its determinate Quan∣tity from its own strength, having also an Eye to the Nature of the Patient, the Magnitude, sence and Dignity of the Part affected, the Celerity and tardity of the Action: if speci∣ally considered, tis either simple or compound; Simple, which either is for one use only, though consisting of divers ingredients of the same fa∣culty; or it consists of one simple medicament which is either sufficient, or remiss, or intense, or furnished with some malignant or strange Quality, as odor, tast &c.
    Compound, which either serves for divers uses, or is compounded of many simples, endued with a diverse and contrary faculty; touching which observe,
    • 1. That such is used, when we have not that de∣gree in a simple, which we desire, but either more remiss, or more intence.
    • 2. That in its composition regard must be had of the first, second, and third Qualities.
    • 3. That either it consists of divers simples of the same faculty and degree: & then it is of the same faculty & degree: or of the same faculty and a dif∣ferent degree; and then that which is remiss abates that which is intense, and that which is intense enhances that which is remiss, to the middle between both: or of contrary faculties & of the same degree, and then it is temperate: or of contrary faculties and different degrees, and then it is reduced to a medium •••ween both: al which ought so to be understood, that both the equality of Quantity be observed and fermentation excluded.
  • II. With correctives which either spur up and quicken a dul lazy basis; or collect and augment the strength of a medicament, which is of thin substance; or xcite by extenuation the force thereof, being lodged in a thick matter; or restraine the vic∣lence thereof; or temper its malignity; or give it a pleasant tast or smel. They ought al∣waies to be of a lesser Quantitity in respect of the Basis, and commonly the proportion of the Basis to the corrections, is judged to be triple: yet certain it is, that the Nature of the Basis and the Correctors, as also the Intent of the Physitian, do vary the same. If the ma∣lice of the basis is to be tempered, they are ad∣ded in an equal Quantity.
  • III. With Di∣rectives which render the medicaments prop∣er for the part affected, open the waies and passages, prepare the humors, and concoct them, in respect of which a weake basis should be exceeding in an eight fold or octuple pro∣portion, a strong one, should be equal or less.
  • IV. With conserves, which fasten the di∣rectors and correctors to the basis, and give a fitting forme to the whol compound; and which ought neither to dul the basis with their over greate Quantity, nor to pervert the same by any strange quality.

III. Preparation of Medicaments, is ei∣ther common, as boileing, Infusion, Roast∣ing, burning, Calcination &c. Or chimical which,

  • 1. Is either diacritical, which dis∣solves the combination of the body, or by way of purification, to which belong Drying and burning; or by Calcination, which is performed by actual or potential fire, to which Sublimation belongs; or by way of Resolu∣tion, whereby a body is dissolved into divers and heterogeneous parts, and which is perfor∣med by Extraction and Tincture; or by Pu∣trefaction, or finally by distillation.
  • II. Or Syneritical, which conjoines things divers and separate into one body, whether it be done by Precipitation, or by Reduction, or by Coagulation and Concretion, or by Digesti∣on and Circulation, or finially by Cohebatino or the repeated distilation of a liquor poured againe and again upon the matter from whence it has been distilled.
  • III. Or Immutatory, which induces a new mode of substance, or quality into a thing, whether it be done by Deliquium, or by Fixation or Volatisation, or by Vitrification. Of these consult Beguine, Sen•••us about the end of his book of the Consent and dissent of the Chymists and Ga∣lenists, and others.

IV. The Fermentation of Medicaments is nothing else but their union by mutual Al∣teration, by which meanes the old virtues of each of them do no longer remaine entire. It is cheifly to be regarded in Treacle and Methri∣date.

V. As for the Division, compound arti∣ficial Medicaments, are Internal or External. The former are fluid, Solid, or middle consis∣tence. And the latter are divided into as many sorts.

Chap. 4. Of Compound artifici∣al Medicnies in Special.

Article, I. Of Internal Medicaments.
Point, I. Of internal fluid Medica∣ments.

WE cal those internal Medicaments, which are received by the mouth into the Body; and those we terme fluid which wil run like water, and they are.

  • 1. Decoctions.
  • 2. Infusions.
  • 3. Potions.
  • 4. Medicinal Wines.
  • 5. Medicinal Beer or Ale.
  • 6. Oxy∣mel.
  • 7. Barley water.
  • 8. Medicinal Vine∣gar.
  • 9. Distilled waters.
  • 10. Syrup.
  • 11. Juleps.
  • 12. Emulsions.
  • 13. Es∣sences.
  • 14. Spirits.
  • 15. Tinctures.
  • 16 Oiles.

I. Decoctions, are made of vegetables, ani∣mals, & sometimes of mineralls, if need be, cut, bruised or shaven, boiled in simple or prepared water, over a slow or quick fire, in a vessel o∣pen or shut, to the consumption of a third or fourth part of the liquor, the Decoction be∣ing afterwards strained; aromatized and clari∣fied. The most noted decoctions are, The greater aperitive decoction of the Physitians of Augsburg, with their Decoction of Rubarbe, Decoction of Maiden haire Fumitory, Car∣minative, Gallinae consummatum of a Capon, and the Vulnerary Decoction.

II. Infusions are made of Vegetables, or minnerals, purgers or vomitories, steeped a cer∣taine time in some liquor, and afterwards strained forth. The proportion of the In∣gredients to the liquor, is one and an half, or double.

III. Potions are made, when purgeing E∣lectuaries, Extracts, pouders, roules &c. are mixed with liquors, without boileing. 

IV. Medicinal Wines, are prepared, when new or clarified Wine is impregnated with the Virtues of simples, either suddenly by their oyles, spirits, and tinctures, or by long Infusi∣on, either with or without sugar. The prin∣cipal are wine of Barberies, Quinces, Pomgra∣nates red Corants.

V. Medicinal beers and Physick Ales are made after the same manner.

VI. Oxymel is made, when vinegar is mingled with Honey, and plants are sometime steeped therein. The most famous are, the Simple, that of squils, the Helleborate Oxymel of Gesnerus.

VII. Barley water is made, when barley is sufficiently boiled in water, alone, or with raisons, anis-feed, cinnamon; strained, and made tart with a drop or two of spirit of Vitriol, or of Sulphur.

VIII. Medicinal Vinegar is made, when simples or compounds are steeped in vinegar, or it is made of their juices. It is made of Plants.

  • 1. Of their Flowers as vinegar of rosemary-flowers, of Marrygolds, of Gil∣lyflowers, of Lavendar, of Poppie, of Red-poppie, of Roses, of elder flowers.
  • 2. Of their Leaves, as of Mints, Rue, Scordium.
  • 3. Of their Fruits, as of Citron peeles, Strau∣berries, Rasberries.
  • 4. Of their Roots as vine∣gar of Squils. There are also compound vinegar, Antidotary, Preservatory, Bezo∣ardick &c.

IX. Distilled waters, either by a Cucur∣bita in Balneo Mariae of plants for the most part of cold Nature, whol, or beaten and juiced; or in Vesica, out of hot plants and such whose force is not easily drawn forth, and which must first ferment. They are made either with wine, as Wormwood water, Agrymony, Betonie, Carduus, Cinnamon, Liverwort, Lavendar, Lilly-convally, Baume, Penny∣royal, Garden sage Veronica, or without wine, as are those of Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, &c. Or which see the Dispensatory of Augsburge. They are also made of Animals, as of Capons, Singing birds, Kidnies, Mans blood, dung of Beasts &c.

X. Syrups, are made of decoctions, In∣fusions clarrified juices; they are preserved with honey or sugar, & boiled to the consistence of honey almost, and are used both to alter and purge; seldom alone, frequently mingled with a double quantity of distilled waters. Those kept in the Shops, are, Syrup of worm∣wood, of juice of Citrons, of Sorrel, wood-Sorrel, Vinegar simple, of vinegar compound, of Maiden haire, of sowr grapes, of Marsh∣mallows, of Orenges, of Mugwort, of Betony Simple, of Betony compound, of borrage, Byzantious, so cald, simple and compound, of Maidenhaire simple, of Cichory simple, of Cinnamon, of Corals, of Citron peeles, of Quinces, of Endive simple, and compound, Of Eupatoruim, of Colts foot, of Fumitory Simple and compound, of Lycorize, of Pom∣granates, of Jujubees, of Hyssop, of Lemons, of Hops, of Baum, of Mints, the Simple and compound, of Myrtiles, of waterlillies, of Poppies, of red poppies, of Cowslips, of Pionie, of Mouse-eare, of Apples Simple and Compound, of Purslain, of Horehound, of the five opening roots, of Roses Simple, of dried roses, of Rasberries, of Scabious, of stechados, of Comfrey, of Violets.

XI. Juleps are made of distilled waters, juyces, conserves, and sugar, either, without de∣coction or with decoction.

XII. Emulsions are made of seeds, nut kernels, perles, corals, hearts-horne, certaine fruites, being beaten with some liquor poured on, and then strained forth.

XIII. Essences, are made of the juice of green herbes pressed out with spirit of wine, and digested in Balneo Mariae, where they re∣ceive their color separated by inclination, and with a little sugar reduced into the forme of a Syrupe.

XIIII. Spirits descend in the distillation both of Simple and compound waters, together with the waters themselves, and are afterwards separated from them, by a Cucurbita, vial, &c. But this must be understood of the more vo∣latil sort. The fixer sort, are drawen out by a Retort, and a stronger fire, viz. With sand, or the bare fire. The cheife drawen from Minerals are, of Alum, of coral, Mer∣cury, Sal ammoniack; Common Salt, Nitre, Lead, Ambar, Sulphur, Tartar, Vitriol; of Vegetables, are, of Wormwood, Wine-vinegar, Angelica, Anisseed, Carduus, Cen∣torie, black-cherries, Scurvy-grass, Quin∣ces, Elder-berries, Fenel, Strawberries, Guaiacum, Juniper-berries, Lilly-convally, Baume, Rosemary, Roses, Sage, Danewort, Linden-flowers, Fluellen, wine &c.

XV. Tinctures are made of dry Plants, for the most part hot beaten & steeped in some liquor, which is called the Menstruum, as spirit of Wine, May-dew, or some other, set in an hot place, and the vessel shut, so longe as that the liquor wil receive no more colour; and then they are filtred through a Paper, or purified by digestion. The most renowned, are.

  • 1. Of Minerals, Of the Sun, Moon, Mars, Saturne, Antimony, Sulphur, Vitriol Smaragd.
  • 2. Of Vigitables, and cheifly of flowers, of Winter-cherries, Safron, Black∣cherries, Strawberries, St. Johns wort, Peo∣ny, Red poppie, Roses, Violets, Elder-berries, Dwarfe elder &c.

XVI. Oyles, are drawen out of gummie & rosiny substances, either descend with waters in distillation, or are separated from them, either by a separatory, or by thick linnen threds, or by brown or otherwise sinking pa∣per; in some materials, they sink to the bot∣tom, the more remarkable are, oile of worm∣wood, Dil, Angelica. Of which see beneath in the first point of the third article.

Point, 2. Of internal solid Me∣dicaments.

INternal solid Medicaments are.

  • Pou∣ders.
  • 2. Salts.
  • 3. Saffrons.
  • 4. Flowers.
  • 5. Precipitates.
  • 6. Vitra, Glass.
  • 7. Feculae dregs.
  • 8. Confects.
  • 9. Roules.
  • 10. Lozenges or bits.
  • 11. Trochiscks  And
  • 12. Pils.

I. Pouders consist of one or more medica∣ments beaten together. They are either Sub∣tile, which if they consist of meer spices, and sugar, their proper and peculiar name is, Tragemata or Tragee, dredge pouders; to which Sales Sacer dotales, or the Parsons Salts are to be referred, which are used with meat; or grosser, and are termed Trageae grossae, and species incisae, and are made either of simples, and they either confected over with sugar, or not sugared; or of compounds, viz. the aromatick roules or Lozenges of the shops. We use them both for Evacuation and Alteration. Among the Purging sort are, Pulvis sena preparatae, Tartari Chrysta∣lini solutivis, de Tribus, Cholagogus simplex, Cholagogus insucoatus. Earle of Warwicks pouder or Pulvis Cornachinus. Of the Electu∣ary of Benedicta Laxativa; Elescoph, Hiera pi∣cra, Diaphenicon, de Succe Rosarum, Diatur∣bith cum Rhabarbaro. Among the Alterers are, the species or pouder of Ariomatica Caryophyllata, Dianthos, Diacalaminthes, Diacinnamomum, Diagalanga, De Gemmis calida and frigida, de Hyacintho, Dtaireos, Latificans, Liberans, Diamargari∣tum calidum, frigidum, Diamoschu dulcis, Diatrion pipereon, Diarrhodon Abbatis, Ro∣sata novella, Diatrion Santalon, Diatragacan∣thum frigidum, Diaxylo-Aloes, &c. Hi∣therto appertain Alexipharmical powders or Antidotes, such as Pulvis Saxonicus, Caesa∣ris, Gasceignes pouder, Viper Pouder, Coun∣tess of Kents Pouder. Of these and other like Medicaments see the London Dispensatory in English.

II. There is in al things, very near, a two∣fold salt, Volatile, by some called Essential, which sustains not the force of fire, but flies a∣way, and is dissipated in calcination: and fix∣ed, which is prepared of the ashes of plants and woods, of which a lie is made, and that is boiled, til al the water exhale, and then the salt remains. 'Tis purified, either by frequent solution and filtration, and recoagulation: or if it be dssolved per Deliquium in a moist place, let it be filtred, and again coagulated. The Principal are, Salt of Wormwood, of Mugwort, of Crabs, of Carduus, Centaury, Chervil, Harts-horn Volatile, of Mans scul Volatil, Eyebright, Bean-shels and Ham, of Strawberry Leaves, Fumitory, Guajacum vo∣latile, Ground Ivy, Juniper berries, Juniper wood, Marjeram, Feaverfew, Bawm, Nitre, Onone or rest-harrow, Arsmart, Pimpernel, Rue, Sage, Mans-blood, Scordium, of amber Volatil, of Tamarisk, of Tartar, of vitriol vo∣mitive, of Urine, Nettles, Zedoary, of Jove, Sa∣turn, Corals, Pearls, &c.

III. Saffrons are subtile pouders, or tin∣ctures, reduced into the form of pouder, of a Saffron color, the principal are, Crocus Me∣tallorum, which is nothing else but Antimony calcined with Nitre, and reduced into a pouder of a saffron-color, of thin, to which is the Sul∣phur Auratum of Antimony, and of Mars, which is divers waies prepared, of which see the Chymists. Terra Vitrioli is not uncon∣veniently referred to the Head.

IV. Flowers are by Chymists so called, being for the most part the more subtil parti∣cles of a body, separated from the grosser sub∣stance by Sublimation. The most vulgar are, flower of Brimstone, Antimony, Benzoin, to which pertain al other sublimates, the chief of which are Mercurius sublimatus simplex, and Sublimatus dulcis, Arcanum Corrallinum, &c.

V. The name of Precipitate is chiefly attributed to Mercury; which having been dissolved in Aquafortis is separated from the Solvent water and settles, and receives the name of Mercurius Praecipitatus or Turbith Mine∣ral; to which in its praecipitation, if a little gold be added, 'tis called Aurum Vitae. Hereto pertains Bezoardicum Minerale, Mer∣curius Vitae, and some other things.

VI. Glass is made of the Calces of things, if the Ashes or Calx be melted with an excee∣ding strong fire, and Borax be somtimes added to hasten the Melting, or other melting pou∣ders; the matter being melted, is poured upon an hot bason, or some plate. Thus is the Glass of Antimony (or stibium commonly called) and the amber of Antimony made of those Cups, Rings, and purging moneys may be made. Touching the Vitrum Auratum An∣timonii, and the Regulus Antimonii see the Chymists, especially Schroderus in his Phar∣macopaea

VII. Fecula is a mealy pouder like starch, and is made of the juice of certain roots pressed forth, or extracted with liquor, which when placed in a cold place, the fecula settles of its own accord, which, the water swimming on the top being poured off, is dried in the sha∣dow. The most usual are Fecula Bryoniae, A∣ri, Paeoniae, Iridis, Serpentariae, white Lillies, Squils.

VIII. Confects are things preserved dry, invented for to gratifie the tast; and they are made both to alter and evacuate. The chief are, of sweet almonds, of Aniseed laxative, of Calamus Aromaticus, Cardamoms, Car∣way, July-flowers, Cichory, Cinnamon, Cori∣ander, Musk Plums, Cubebs, Fennel, Laven∣der Flowers, Pimpernel Roots, Pine Kernels, Zedoary, Ginger. Hitherto belong Candied things, which are crusted with Sugarcandy, as Acorus, Orenge peels, July-Flowers, Cinna∣mon, Citron Peels, Nutmegs, Muscatel-Pears, &c.

IX. Rouls so called from their shape, for they are either altering or purging, and are pre∣pared with Sugar, whose vulgar proportion is octuple in alteratives, quadruple in Purga∣tives, more in stillatitious oyls. The principle are, Rotulae de Berberis, Manus Christi sim∣ple and perled, pectoral rouls. Of Sulphur, &c.

X. Morsuli, morsels, are made almost in in the same maner. They are either Altera∣tives as the Bezoardic, Cephalic, Cephalico∣stomachic, of the juice and peles of Citrons, Pectoral Sugars, Rosatum Tabulatum, &c. Or Purging, as Diacarthami, Diaphenicon, of Mechoacan, of Jalap, of Diaturbith cum rhabarbaro, &c. or Nutritive, which are made of the pulp of Capons, Partridges, Cock∣stones, Flesh of Crabs and Tortoises, &c. To morsels appertain.

  • 1. Pamdeleon so called, the Matter and end whereof agrees with Ele∣ctuaries or Lick-pots, and the form with Lo∣zenges, save that the Pandaleon is shapeless.
  • 2. Turiones, as if you would say, torrones a torrendo from toasting, which are made of sweet almonds, Nut Kernels, Pine Kernels, beaten or toasted, and made up with honey.
  • 3. Confections restorative, as Diamygdaltaum, Pineatum, Testudinatum, Diet bread, Naples bisket, &c.

XI. Trochisci, or Parstilli, are solid cohe∣ring medicaments, consisting of convenient in∣gredients made up with Liquor, in the shape of Lupines, or little flat bowls; invented to this end, that medicaments being poudred, might be in this form the better preserved a∣gainst the Injuries of the Air. They are pre∣pared of al kind of medicaments, not only pou∣ders and Species, but with addition of thickned juices, Conservs, Extracts, or the like Confecti∣ons, the dose to the Pouders in being a proporti∣on somwhat less then quadruple, &c. They are either alterative, & Wormwood, of Alipta, Moschata, with Amber of Mosch, or without, Bechici albi, Nigri, Rubri, de Berberis, de Camphera, de Capparibus, de Carabe, de Ca∣rallio, Cypheos of Democrates, de Lacca, de Myrrha, de Spodio, de Terra sigilata, de Vi∣pera, &c. or Purgers of Agaric, of Coloquin∣tida, &c.

XII. Pils, are medicaments reduced into the form of little bals, that they may be swollowed whole, and the unsavoriness of the ingredients, not discerned by the Tast. They are made of pouders extracted out of the mass of usual pils, the simples being made up with some liquor. They are either Alterers of Bdel∣lium, Bechicae, or for the Cough, of Castoreum, of Cynoglossa, Narcotick pils of platerus, &c. or Purgers, of Agarick, Agregative, Alephan∣gine, of Aloes rosata, of Amoniacum Arthriticae, Assajeret, Aureae, de Colocynthide, de Her∣modactilis, Mastichinae, Panchimagogae, &c. They are also distinguished into Hypoglotudes and Narcoticae.

Point III. Of internal medicaments of a middle Consistence.

Internal Medicaments of a middle consistence between fluid and solid, contain under them.

  • 1. Extracts.
  • 2. Rosins.
  • 3. Conservs.
  • 4. Conserves.
  • 5. Quiddennies.
  • 6. Electua∣ries.
  • 7. Lick-pots.
  • 8. Sopes. and
  • 9. Bo∣les.

An Extract is drawn as a tincture, and is reduced to the Consistence of Honey, Pils, or pouder. The most usual are, of wormwood, of Acorus, of Lignum aloes, of Angelica roots, of round Birthwort, of Carduus, of Gillo∣flowers, of Castoreum, of Centory, of Celon∣dine, of Safron, of Cubebs, of Dictamus, of Enula, of Galingal, of Gentian, of Guajacum, of Masterwort roots, of Baume, of Mint, of Mace, Marjoram, of Broad dock, of Paeonie, of Rue, of Savine, of Satyrium roots, of Scabious, of Scordium, of Comfrey, of Tor∣mentil, of Valerian, of Zedoary.

II. Rosm is drawn out of Gummy mate∣rials with Rosewater and spirit of wine, separ∣ate from the feces by inclination, precipitated and dryed with a gentle heat.

III. Conserve is made of flowers, som∣times of herbes, and soft roots bruised, and preserved with a double quantity of sugar. The most usual are, of the tops of Roman-wormwood, Carduus, Eye-bright, Fumi∣tory, Marjorom, Penyroial, Veronica. Of the Leaves, of Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, Scur∣vy-grass, Mints, Purslane; of flowers of A∣cacia, Betonie, Borrage, Bugloss, Mary∣golds, Cichory, Broom, White-lillies, La∣vendar, Lilly-convally, Mallowes, Baume, Mints, Water-lillies, red Poppie, Peach-flowers, Primrose, Prunella, white and Red-roses, Sage, Elder, Linden, Savory, Colts-foot.

IV. Preserves are made of roots, barkes, Fruits, or harder materials, steeped in water or boiled; or of softer, preserved in sugar or honey, to last the better and to be more grate∣ful to the Palate. The more usual are these following. Of the roots of Calamus aromati∣cus, Borrage, Cichory, Comfry, Elecom∣pane, Eryngoes, Pimpernel, Rhubarbe, Saty∣rium, Scorzonera, Zedoarie, Ginger, both that of China, and the common sort. Of the flowers of Orenges, Citrons; the fruits of Orenges, Barberies, Cherries, Citrons, either whole, cut in slices, or dried; or of the pulpe of Quinces, bramble berries or Hips, Apri∣cocks, Medlars, Myrabolans bellirican, Che∣bulan, Citrine, and Emblican; of Wallnuts, and Indian nuts, of Peaches, black-peper in the branch, Sloes, Prunes, Damsins &c. Of Peeles of Aurenges, Citrons. And stalkes of Spanish Lettuce.

V. Rob or Quiddiny is the thickned juice of fruits, sometimes of flowers, either with expression, or without expression, boiled and with a like quantity or somewhat more of su∣gar added. The cheife are, of Barberies, Cherries, Hips, red-corants, Elder berries. Hitherto belong thickned juyces, of Worm∣wood, Acacia, Agrimony, Aloes, Carduus, kermes berries, Elder berries, centaury, Quinces, Elecampane, Fumitory, Lycorize, Hedge-Hys∣sop, St. Johns wort, Henbane▪ Hypocistis, our blew Orice, Licorize, Mercury, Myrtils of germanie, Nicotiana or Tobacco, Opium, Plantane, Red-Roses, scrophularia, and So∣latrum. Ad hereunto Mel Ebulinum, Sambuci∣num, Juniperinum, and Passulatum.

V. An Electuary is made of Conserves, Spices, Roules, Trochischs, a proportion of juice or syrup being added. The Cheif are, Venice Treacle, Mithridate, Alkermes, Con∣fectio Anacardina, Aurea Alexandrina, Elec∣tuary of Bay-berries, de Scoria ferri, de Ovo, Philonium Mesuae, Persicum, Romanum, Dioscoridum, Tryphera magna, so named be∣cause they give a good color to the whole body, and make the breath sweet, and are made up of curious ingredients.

VI. Eclegma, or Lohoch, or Lick-pot, of pouders, species, conserves, juices, mixed with some liquor or syrupe, used against infir∣mities of the Lungs and Chest. The most u∣sual are, de Scilla compositum, de Caulibus, de Farfara, de Papavere, Passulatum, of the Pine kernels, of Purslane, of Fox-lungs, Lohoch-sanum and expertum, and succo Scillae &c.

VII. Saponea, is a Lick-pot made of almonds blanched and beaten, and with sugar dissolved in a convenient water boiled to the consistence of Honey, starch and rosewater be∣ing added towards the end.

VIII. Bolus, a morsel, is made of Electu∣aries, pulpes, conserves, spices, pouders with a little syrupe, made into the shape of a little bal; given to purge, vomit, alter, or some o∣ther purpose.

Article, 2. Of external Medicaments.
Point, 1. Of external fluid Medicaments.

And so much for compound internal Medi∣caments; the external follow; which are ei∣ther fluid, or solid or of a middling nature, or indifferent. The fluid are.

  • 1. Clysters.
  • 2. Gargles.
  • 3. Mouth-washers.
  • 4. Oiles.
  • 5. Epithemes.
  • 6. Pumpings.
  • 7. Lo∣tions.

I. Clisters, are medicaments, which by a convenient Instrument, are cast through the fundament into the Guts. They are made of Roots, Barkes, Leaves, Flowers, Fruites, boyled in water and strained, some other things being added, which may serve the Intent of the Physitian. Their use is to loosen the belly, to clense, dispel wind, to bind, to sodder, to allay the paines, of the Guts and kidneyes.

II. Diaclysmata or Mouthwashings, are medicaments, which are kept in the mouth, and are by the tongue moved up and down without swallowing. They are cheifly pro∣vided for paines of the Teeth and Diseases of the Jawes.

III. Gargarismes are medicaments, with which the throat is washed without swallow∣ing down, the humor being forced up and down by the breath. They are made of distilled wa∣ters, or convenient decoctions, neither un∣pleasing in tast nor smel, nor haveing any ve∣nemousness in them, in which some syrupe or Quiddinie is dissolved. We use them in re∣pelling, discussing, ripening, abstersion, con∣solidation.

IV. Oiles are made either by distillation, as aforesaid: or by expression of the oleaginous juice, when the fruits and contused seeds grow warme with the vapour of hot water, and being put in a bag are squeezed in a Press: or by infu∣sion, either when the simple medicaments with simple water, or distilled water, wine or o∣ther convenient liquor, are boiled in com∣mon oile, til the Humor be consumed: or when the same simples are macerated in a gen∣tle Heat, or in the Sunn; or when dryed plants, are with oile digested in balneo Mariae, the oile being afterwards pressed out and cla∣rified. The Oiles pressed out are these; Oile of bitter Almonds and of sweet, of Hazel-nuts, of Hemp seed, of Cherry kernels, of Citron seeds, of Rocket, of Henbane, of Walnuts, of Baies, of Mace, of Nigella, of Nutmeg, of Ripe and unripe Olives, of Eggs, de palma, of Poppie, of Peach kernels, of Pine kernels, Pistachios, Rape, Ricinus, sesamus, Acorns. Oiles by infusion in the Sun, and simple are these, Oile of Wormwood, Southernwood, Dil, Chamemel, Cheiri, Quinces, Elecampane, Euphorbium, Pismires, Ground-ivy, Jasemine, Orice, Priver, of Lillies, Lilly convally, wormes, Mastich, Mint, Melilote, Myrtils, Nard, white lilly, Populeum, Frogs, Roses, Rue, Elder, Scor∣pions, Storax, Mullen, Violets. Boiled Oiles, compound, are these following: of Capers, Castoreum, Costus, St. Johns wort, Lilies, Marjorum, Mandrake, Nard, Poppy, Pepers, Foxes. The stillatitious oiles, most in use are these. Of Wormwood, of dil, of Angelica, of Anis, Orenge-peeles, May-but∣ter, Benzoin, Calamus aromaticus, Cam∣phire, Cardamoms, Caraway, Cloves, Waxe rectified, Chamaemel, Chervil, Cinnamon, Bark of Citron, Cumin, Cubebs, Euphorbi∣um, Fenel, Galbanum, Guajacum, Hyssop, Juniper berries, juniper wood, of Tiles ph∣losophick, of Mace, Marjerom, Mastich, Baum, Mints, Myrrhe rectified. Of Nutmeg, of Origanum, of Peper, of Peny-roial, Rose∣mary, of Roses, of Sage, of Savine, Wild∣bettony, Spike, White amber, yellow Amber, Tartar, Terpentine, Zedoarie.

V. Epithemata, Epithemes are applied to the external parts of the Body, and are made of distilled waters, juices, infusions, sui∣table to the part and disease. To them belong Oxyrrhodina Rose-vinegred Epithemes, which are peculialy applied to the forhead, with frequent reiterations, to coole and repel. They were anciently made of Oile of Roses and vinegar; now a daies distilled Oiles and waters, as also juices and pouders are some∣times added.

VI. Pumping or pouring, is when com∣mon water, bathe water, decoctions, Milke, Oile &c. are pumped or poured down upon some part, or suffered to dril upon the same out of a cock or spout of sisterne or Ewer. They are applied cheifly to three places, viz. the suture of the Crown of the Head, the Beginning of the spinal Marrow, and to warme the stomach.

VII. Lotions are either of the whole Bodie, and are called Baths, or of the parts, Head, Hands, Feet, Belly &c. They are made of the same things as fomentations are made of.

Point, 2. Of external solid Medica∣ments.

External solid Medicaments are:

  • 1. Sup∣positories.
  • 2. Pesseries.
  • 3. Plaisters.
  • 4. Cerates.
  • 5. Caustick.

Suppositories, are sollid Medicaments, which are put up into the fundament, being formed round like a wax candel, four or five fingers breadth longe. They are made of Honey boiled so thick, that it may be wrought and fashioned with a mans fingers, into which o∣ther requisite materials are sprinkled. They are used to loosen the Belly, the patient being weak; to clense and consolidate an ulcer in the Rectum Intestinum, to stop paine, draw back humors flowing upwards, and kil worms in the Guts. 

II. Pessaries are made of towzed wool or cotton, wreathed into the forme of a mans finger, impregnated with some juice or Li∣quor, either alone or with pouders commixed: or of beaten medicaments made up in a mortar with convenient liquors, as Fat, Oile, waxe, Ladanum, Galbanum, Honey, and wrought into the forme of a pessarie: or of green herbes a little bruised, and bound with a string into the shape of a pessarie. Or of pouders, re∣ceived in thin wool or Cotton, and bound with a thrid into the forme of a Pessarie. Or of pouders received in thin wool or Cotton, and put into a round bag made of thin cloath, which may be included in a round silver Instru∣ment with holes on the sides, made for that purpose.

III. Plaisters properly so called, are Me∣dicaments, which being spred upon linnen Cloathes or leather, do stick fast to the Skin of the body, & are the same with cerotes in respect of the matter, save that metals and mineralls, and litteridge for the most part, are added, which give it solidity of substance. Al which are boiled to a just consistence, and being coo∣led are made up into rowles. Sometimes be∣fore the Mass is quite cold Cereclothes of old linnen are dipped in, and taken forth. Em∣plasters improperly so called, which are of a middle consistence between a plaster and a Cataplasme, are made without waxe, pitch, and those glewish materials, or fire; with ho∣ney, mucilages, and a certaine clammy creame, or a little wax dissolved in Oile. The cheife Plasters are, Album coctum, Apostolicum, Arthriticum, Basilicum, and Lapide Cala∣minari, Diachylon simplex, Magnum, Par∣bum, cum Gummi, Citrinum, de Crusta pa∣nis, de Baccis Lauri, de Meliloto, de Minio, Mundificativum, Nervinum, Oxycroceum, Diaphenicum calidum, frigidum; de ranis Vigonis, de Rhabardaro, Sparadrap, Stich∣ticum, Paracelsi, Tetrapharmacum, Vesi∣catorium.

IV. Cerotes which consist much of wax, and are not of so hard a consistence as Plasters, are made either of wax, Oile, and Rosin only, or of the same pouders being added besides, so that, the proportion of oiles to pouders is octuple, to wax triple or sextuple, to rosin twelve times as much. Besides al these, fats and gums are added, juices, roots, fruits, or seeds, which must first be boiled, and the colature is after∣wards to be boiled with oile, til the watrish liquor be consumed. The Principle are, Cerot of Betonie, Diacalciteos, Diapalma, Infrigi∣dans Galeni, Oesypi, Diapixer, pro Hermo∣sis, Santalinum, Sparadrappum, Vigonis Stomachale.

V. Cauteria, Cauteries, are medicaments which have a power to burne the Body, and to raise a crust, and they are either Actual, which consist of red hot metals, of which in our discourse of Chirurgerie; or potential, which are made by burning medicaments, and composed of Lie which soap is made of, boi∣led into a consistence of Salt, or of a stone al∣most, which is vulgarly called Lapis corrosivus. An Ulcer made by a Caustick or Cautery, is commonly called a fontanel or issue.

Point, 3. Of external medicaments of a middle consistence.

External medicaments of a middle Consis∣tence are.

  • 1. Balsams.
  • 2. Liniments.
  • 3. Ʋnguents.
  • 4. Cataplasmes.

I. Balsams are made of oiles incorpora∣ted with white wax deparated, or oile of Nut∣megs by expression, or the marrow of a Calfe washed, or manna clarified. Also the ex∣tracts of things whose balsom is desired, may be mingled with them. The most usual are these; of Angelica, of Anise, An Apoplectick Balsom, with musk and civet, of Orenges, of Cloves, of Cinnamon, of Citrons, Cubebes, of Lavendar, of Mace, of Marjorom, of Mints, of Nutmegs, of Rose-mary, of Roses, of Rue, of Amber, Zedoary. There are also distilled Balsomes which are nothing else but distilled spirits (and a potion of oile) proceeding from rosins, gums, spices, and such like drawn out with spirit of wine. The most usual are, Balsamus vitae, Nervinus, Antiarthriticus, &c.

II. Liniments, are Medicaments of a mid∣dle consistency between an oile and an unguent, and are made by adding to Oiles, Butter, Fat, Suet, Marrow, juices, pouders, rosins, teares of trees; in this proportion for the most part, that to one ounce of oiles, two drams or three of fats be added, one dram of spices; somtimes though seldom, a dram of wax is added. Al are mixed either with fire, or without fire, or boiling; sometimes they are set over the fire to melt the gums and fats; and sometimes they are a little boiled to consume and wast away the juices added.

III. Ointments, differ from Liniments by their thicker consistence, and are made either without fire, or with fire, of fats, oiles, gums, pouders, usual ointments of herbes, roots, seeds; macerated in water, wine, juices, oiles, and boiled to the Consumption of the liquor. The most usual are of Agrippa, Aegyptiacum, Alabastrinum, Album camphoratum, Altheae simplex compositum, Apostolicum, Arthanitae, Aureum, Citrinum, Comitissae, Infrigidans Galeni, Martiatum magnum, de Nicotiana, Tutiae, Pectorale, Pomatum, Populeon, Potabile, Resumptivum, Rosatum, Rubeum Camphoratum; ad Scabiem, Enulatum cum, and sine Mercurio, Apertivum. Of al which see the London Dispensatory in English.

IV. Cataplasmes or Pultesses, are Medi∣caments made up in the form of watergrewel or hasty-pudding. They are made, either, with∣out fire, which they terme crude, when green herbes bruised are reduced into a Pultis, or dried and poudered. They are mixed with a double or triple Quantity of some convenient Oile or Liquor: either over the fire or with boiling, when either the Plants broken or bruised, boiled til they are soft, and drawn through a searse; to which mucilages, meales, oiles, are added, or the Plants are soon after boiled in Oile. Hitherto may be refered.

  • 1. Dropax, or Pitching, which is made of pitch melted with oile and other things, that it may stick more strongly to the skin.
  • 2. Sina∣pismus, or a Cataplasme, which is made of Mustard, and other things of like biteing na∣ture.
If it be of the milder sort, tis called Phaenigmus, because it makes the skin looke red, if strong, tis termed a Vesicatorie; and is made of vesicatories.

Point, 4. Of external Indifferent Medi∣caments.

I cal those indifferent medicaments which are sometimes prepared liquid, sometimes solid, sometimes of a middle cinfistence: and they are.

  • 1. Apophlegmatismes.
  • 2. Denti∣frices.
  • 3. Nose-remedies.
  • 4. Sneezers.
  • 5. Perfumes or pomanders.
  • 6. Scapes,
  • 7. Burning fumers.
  • 8. Eye-salves.

I. Apophlegmatismes, are medicaments which being held in the mouth, draw flegm out of the Head and neighbouring parts: They are prepared many times after the same manner that Gargarismes are: sometimes medicaments are beaten, and with some convenient liquor brought into the forme of an electuary: some∣times whole simples are only held in the mouth and chewed: sometimes being beaten they are with honey or wax reduced into trochisks: and sometimes they are shaped into a nodule.

II. Dentifrizes, Teeth-scrubbers, are prepared to clense, whiten, and fasten the Teeth to contract the loosened gums; either fluid, or in forme of a Liniment, Pouder, Tro∣chischs.

III. Errhina, Nose-Medicines, are put into the Nostrils, either in a moist forme, which are either powred in, or anointed on; or in a dry form, and then either they are figu∣red our of convenient roots or stalks, into a pyramidal forme, and are steeped in water and so used; or the pouder of simples are blown into the nostrils; or tents of wool or cloath are wet with some juice or water, and being sprinkled with pouders are thrust up into the Nostrils; or pouders are with mucilage, Gum, Terpentine, Oile or Wax, formed into Py∣ramidal pencils.

IV. Ptarmica, sneezers, differ not much from the former, and procure sneezings.

V. Odours are made of such things as have a sweet smell, and are either fluid, or are made up in the forme of an Apple, Pouder, Lini∣ment.

VI. Soapes are made of Castle-soape sha∣ven, and about a sixt or eight part of some convenient pouders mixt therewith, and with some liquor made into a mass of which wash∣bass are framed.

VII. Suffitus, Perfumes to burn, belong to Odors, and are prepared in form of Pouder, Trochisks and Pyramides.

VIII. Eye-salves are used externally to the Eyes, and are prepared either drie, being bea∣ten very smal in a mortar; or moist, which either are distilled into the Eyes in form of a Liquor, or anointed upon them in form of a salve; or Vaporous, which being boiled in water, the vapour exhaling from them is re∣ceived into the Eyes, the patients Head being to that end covered with a cloath of Linnen. But touching al these consult the Medico-chy∣mical Pharmacopeia of Dr. John Schroder, which I commend to students of Physick a∣bove al others.

Chap. 5. Of Medicaments de∣nominated from their Facultis.

Article, I. Of altering Medicaments.
Point, 1. Of bot Medicaments.

SO much may suffice to have spoken of Me∣dicaments simple and compound. Medica∣menta  denominated from their faculties, are either Alterres, or Causers of Motion, or Pro∣ducers of somewhat, or takers away of some∣what, or Resisters of Poison.

Altering Medicaments are many waies differenced: for they are Temperate, Hot, Cold, Moist, Dry, Digesting, Emollient, Hardning, Relaxing, Rarifieing, Con∣densing, Shutting, Opening mouths of veins, Attenuaters, Openers, Incrassaters, Em∣plasticks, Deobstructers, Abstersives, Pain∣asswagers, and Narcoticks.

I. Temperate are such as exceed not in the first Qualities, as are Maiden haire, Aspara∣gus, Lycorise, Pine kernels, Jujubes, figs, Sebestens, Raisons, Dates, Gum Elemi, Gum dragant, Veale-suer, Goat-suer, Hogs∣grease, sweet oile.

II. Things are hot, in the first, second, third, or fourth degree.

I. Things hot in the first degree are such as do scarce sensibly heat the Body, as, The Roots of Marsh mallowes, Beares-Breech, Betes, Bugloss, Lycorize, Satyrium. The leaves of Wormwood, which some count hot in the second degree, of Marshmallowes, Bor∣rage, Bugloss, Betes, Beares-Breech, Cole∣wort, Chamomel, Dodder, Liverwort or Agrimony, Fumitory, Toad-flax, Melilote, Malabathrium, Spicknard, Scolopendrium, Comfres, Coltsfoot. The Flowers of Bor∣rage, or Bugloss, of Betony, of Oxe eye, Melilote, Chamomel, Black poplar, Stae∣chados, Groundsel. Seeds of Coriander, Faenigreeke, Line, Gromwel, Sesamus, Rice. Fruits, Sweet almonds, Chastnuts, Jujubes, Cypress nuts, Green wallnuts, ripe Grapes, ripe Mulberries, Sweet fragrant Ap∣ples. Barks, of Mace, Guajacum, Tamarisk. Liquors, juices and Gums, Sugar, Bdellium, Ladanum, Gum Hedera. Suet of a Kid, a Doe, an hart, new fresh butter.

II. Those Medicines are hot in the second Degree, which manifestly heat, but without Hurt. As the Roots, of Smallage, Cap∣pars, Hogs-fennel, Pimpernel, Nape, Zedo∣ary, Rhodia. Leaves of; wormwood, Calves snout, Green dil, Angelica, Smallage, Mug∣wort, Betonie, Calamus odoratus, Chame∣pitys, Faenum graecum, Hypericum, Ivie, Hops, Baume, Hoar-hound, Feverfew, Basil, Chervil, Pimpernel, Hogs-fenel, Poli∣um, Rosemary, Savory, Sage, Scabious, Scor∣dium, Stechados, Tansey. Flowers of A∣momum, Safron, Gilloflowers, Schaenanth, Lavendar, Hops, Baume, Rosemary. Seeds. of Dil, Smallage, Orobus, Rocker, Basil, Nettle. Fruits; of Cappars, Nutmegs, Pistachives, drie figs, drie nuts. Barks; of cassia lignea, Cinnamon, Franckincense, of Cappar roots. Liquors, Gums Rofins; Wine which is not old, Ladanum, Aloe, Galbanum, Myrrhe, Mastich, Franckincense, Storax. Fat, Lions-fat, Panthers, Beares and Foxes grease.

III. Hot in the third degree are such things, as doe vehemently Heat, and with trouble, but without Corruption: as the Roots of Acorus, Asarum, Squils, Dictamus, Doronicum, Fen∣nel, Galangal, both the Hellebors, Enula Campane, Orice, persley, Radish. Leaves; Southernwood, Asarum, Agnus Castus, A∣rum, Ammoum, Bishops-weed, Dry dil, Bac∣charis, Dictamus, Avens, Ground Oak, Cni∣cus, Centaury, the greater and the less; Ce∣londine, Calamint, Flea-bane, Menthastrum, Fennel, Epithymum, Elecampane, Juniper, Hysop, Bayes, Marjoram, Cockow-Pintle, Mint, Nigella, Aenanthe, Bindweed, Persley, Sneez-wort, Peny-Royal, Rest-harrow, Rue, Savine, Wild-Time, Water-mint, Time, Trefoil, Vervain, Nettles. Flowers; Agnus Caftus, Epithymum, Leucoium, Aenanthe, Pe∣riclymen. Seeds of Byshops-weed, Anise, Amomum, Carway, Cardamom, Water-Cresses. Fennel, Carot, Cummin, Nigella, Na∣vew, Persley, Seseli, Staphes-acre, Agnus Ca∣stus. Fruits; Juniper Beries, Cloves, Car∣pobalsamum, Anacardia, Pepper. 4. Barks, of Mace, Liqors, Tears, Gums; old Wine, Asa dulcis, faetida, Ammoniacum, Cedrian, pitch, Opopanax, Mosch. Metaline, flower of Brass, Burnt Brass, scales of Brass, Verdi∣greise, Diphryges, Alum, Salt, Nitre, Sulphur, Vitriol.

IV. Hot in the fourth degree, are such as heat with the greatest dammage to the Hu∣mane Body: as, Rootes, Garlick, Onion, Co∣stus, Leeks, Pellitory. Leaves, Pepper-wort, both the Water-cresses, the Headed-Leek, Fullers Herb, Thapsia, and Spurge. Seeds of Water-Cresses, Mustard. Fruits, Pepper; Gums, Euphotbium: Metaline substances; Vitriol, Orpment, Sandarach, Chrysocolla, Mi∣sy, sory, Melantheria.

Point II. Of cold Medicaments

Cold Medicaments are, such as alter the Bo∣dy of Man by cooling, and they are such, in the first, second, third, and fourth degree.

I. Cold in the first degree are such as scarce sensibly coole the Boody of Man, and they are Roots of Mallowes; Leaves of Orach, sharp∣pointed-dock, apple-tree, Myrrle, Pellitory. Flowers of, Mallowes, Roses, Violets; Seeds of Barley, Millet. Fruits, Citron∣pulp, Quinces, Peares, Prunes. Juices concrete, Acacia, Dragons blood. Stones, hyacinth, Saphire, Smaragd.

II. Cold in the second are such as mani∣festly cool, but without hurt, as the Leaves of Blite, Dandelyon, Lettuce, Duck-weed, Hyacinth, Sorrel, Plantane, Solomons Seale, Flea-wort, Nightshade. Flowers, of yel∣low Anemone: Fruits of Gourd, Cucumer, Galls, Auranges, Peaches, Damask prunes, Pompions, Pomegranates. Wood, of San∣ders.

III. Cold in the third degree are, which do indeed vehemently coole, but without de∣stroying or corrupting the Body: as Roots of Mandrake, Leaves of Purslane, mandrake, Houseleek, Henbane. Flowers Balaustian. Seeds, of Hemlock, Henbane, Poppie. Fruites, Golden Apples, Mad-Apples. Juyce of Hy∣pocistis.

IV. Cold in the fourth degree are such things as corrupt by cooling and destroy the body; as Leaves of Hemlock, Poppie. Fruits of Thorne Apple. Juyces; Meconium, Opi∣um, according to the vulgar opinion. See thereof Doringuis, Hartman, Frestagius.

Point, III. Of moistining Medicaments.

Moistening Medicaments, are such as by their moistening faculty alter the Body of Man. And the most are such only in the first and second degree.

I. Moist in the first degree are Rootes; of Satyrium, Bugloss, Lycorize, Mallowes, Rapes; The Herbs of Bugloss, Heixine, Mal∣lowes. Flowers of Bugloss Mallows, Endive. Seeds of Mallowes, Sesamus. Fruits, the pulpe of a Citron, Jujubees, Sweet Al∣monds.

II. Moist in the second Degree are, Herbes, Violet leaves, water-lilly-leaves, Orach, Blite, Lettuce, Duck-weed, Purslane. Flowers; of water-lillies, violets. Fruits; of the Gourd, Melons, Pepons, Peaches, Damask prunes, ripe Grapes, Sugar.

Point, IV. Of drie Medicaments.

Drie Medicaments are such as alter the Bodie of Man by drying; and they are so, in the first, second, third and fourth degree.

I. Dry in the first degree are Roots; Bry∣onie, Madder, Aenanthe, Tamarisk, Marshmal∣lowes, Cucko-pintle. Leaves; of Bete, Coleworts, Chamaemel, Fenel, Hyacinth, Malabathrum, Myrtle, Mullein. Flowers, of Oxe-eye, Chamaemel, Safron, Hyacinth, Me∣lilote, Roses. Seeds of Beanes, Faenugreek, Barley. Fruits of Juniper Berties, Chast∣nuts. Gums, as Frankincense.

II. Dry in the second degree, are Roots; of Cappars, Cichory, Raddish. Herbes, Pimpernel, Mugwort, green dil, Betonie, Dodder, Calamus aromaticus, Endive, Sea-Colewort, Shepheards-pouch, Hors-taile, Tooth-pick, Mint, Wild mint, Plantane, Rosemary, Spicknard, Comfery, fumitory, Pimpinel, Sorrel, Vervaine, Shepherds-Rod. Flowers; Balaustians, Peony flowers, Anemoneyes, Ground-pine, bind-weed and staechados. Seeds; of Fenel, Garden-cresses, lentils, Orobus, Millet, Rice, Poppie, Night∣shade. Fruits; Ballanus Myrepsica, Cap∣pars, Quinces, Cypress-nuts, Nutmegs, Peares, Pistachius. Wood, of Sanders, Teares, Gums, Rosins; Galbanum, Opopanax, Stone-pitch, Myrth, Storax, Mastich, Honey.

III. Drie in the third degree are Roots, of Acorus, Asarum, Smalladge, cinnamon, Do∣ronicum, Galangal, Hellebore, Pentaphyllum, Hollow-root, Squil, Three-leaved-sorrel, Trefoile. Leaves and Hearbs; Fearne, Millefoile, Cinquefoile, Polium, Trefoile, Southernwood, Wormwood, Burnt dil, Smal∣ladge Bishops-weed, Asarum, Calamint, Ground oake, Ground-pine, Epithymum, Hyssop, Juniper, Matjorum, Hoare-hound, Origanum, Hogs-fennel, Perseley, Sneeze∣wort, Rue, Savine, Willow, Watermint, Time, Runing-betony. Flowers, of Balausti∣ans, of Epithimum, of Ground-pine of Bind∣weed. Seeds of Dil, Smalladge, Bushop∣weed, Amomum, Anis-seed, carway, Cumin, Coriander, Nigella, perseley, Gromwel, Ag∣nus Castus, Grana tinctorum. Fruits; Cloves, Carpobalsamum, Galls, Peper, Ju∣niper Berries. Juices and Gums; Aloe A∣cetum, acacia, camphire, mosch. Metalline matters, Flower of brass, burnt brass, Scales of brass, verdigreese, diphryges, alume, Salt, Nitre, Sulphur, Chalcitis.

IV. Things dry in the fourth degree are of herbes; wild Rue, Garlick, Water-Cresses, Mustard. Of the Metalline Medicaments, Vitriol, Orpment, Sandarach, Chrysocolla, Misy, Sory, Melantheria. 

Point, V. Of Medicaments, digestive, Emollient, Hardening and Loosening.

Digestive Medicaments are such as assist Nature in concocting such humors as are prae∣ternaturally offensive.

They are also termed praeparatives. Now they prepare, either by removeing impedi∣ments, or by changing the Qualities which re∣sist the action of Natural Heate, respect being nevertheless had to the part wherein the Humors reside.

They are dfferenced according to the differ∣ence of Humors which they prepare. Yellow choler, requires things cooling and drying; and if it be thin, it requires thickners. Flegm stands in need of Heaters, Dryers and attenua∣ters. Melancholy is corrected by things mo∣derately heateing, moistening, and attenuate∣ing. Black choler by things cooling, very much moistening and attenuateing.

A Catalogue of these Medicaments may be drawn from such as are attributed to every part of the Body, of which we shal speake anon; and therefore to avoide tautologie, we omit them for the present.

II. Emollients, are such medicaments as soften and dissolve such Humors as are com∣pacted together, either primarily, as a glew∣ish excrement in the bands of the Muscles; or secondarily, viz. when the thinner parts be∣ing either digested, by the unseasonable use of Resolveing Medicaments, or being driven a∣way by overmuch use of Repellers, the remain∣ing parts grow compacted.

The Greekes cal them malactica: and they must be hot in the second degree, a little dry, of a daubing faculty so as to hinder difflation; and they must be mingled with moistners. They are either Indiffernt, or Strong.

I. Things indifferently emollient. 1. Of Simples, are the Roots of Lillies, Marsh-mal∣lowes, wild Cucumer, Bryonie. Leaves of Mallowes, Pellitory, Violets, Dwarfe-elder; Elder. Flowers of Chamemel. Seeds, of Fenugreek, Line, Sesamus, Mallows. Fruits, fat Figs. Fats, fresh butter, fat of an Hen, Hogs-Grease, Calves-grease, Kids-suet, Weathers-suet, al marrowes. &c. Of Com∣poundes, oile of Lin-seed, sweet-almonds, White-Lillies, Worms. Ointments, of Al∣thea, Unguentum resumptivum. Emplaster, de Mucilaginibus.

II. The stronger sort are Beares-grease, old oile, bdellium, liquid storax, fat rosins, Ammoniacum, Galbanum, Emplastrum Dia∣chylon simple, and cum Gummi.

III. Hardners are opposed to Emollients; the Greeks cal them Sclerotica, or Sclerunonta, and they are cold and moist, as, Sempervivum, purslane, psyllium, Duckweed, Nightshade.

IV. Relaxers are Medicaments which a∣bate the distention caused by some matter, va∣por, or wind, filling and stretching the spaces of the parts. They are moderately hot, very moistening, and of thin substance, for the more easie penetration, as Lillies, seeds of Line, Fe∣nugreek, Fats, Butter, Chamomel Oyl.

Point V. Of Medicaments which Rari∣fie, condense, stop, and open the mouths of the Vessels.

Rarifying Medicaments, are such as open the pores of the Skin, and make them wider, that the Vapors may be better transpired. They are moderately hot, of thin parts, and not dry∣ing; such as are, among Herbs, Marsh-mal∣lows, Mercury. Flowers of Chamomel, Me∣lilot, Elder. Seeds of Fenugreek, Line, Oyl which is old, and Butter.

II. Condensers are, such things as con∣tract and straighten the smal pores of the body, but are not able to compact the whol part, strongly, and every where. They are of a wa∣try Nature, as, cold water; of Herbs, Pur∣slane, Housleek, Flea-wort, Mous-ear, Duck∣weed, green Thistles, Prick-madam, the grea∣ter and the lesser.

III. Stoppers, by their thickness, do so stick externally upon the pores of the body, that by their coldness and dryness, they contract the part. There are of this kind, Astringents so called. Such as are, among Simples, the Roots of Tormentil, Plantane, greater Com∣fry, dry water Lillies, Sorrel, Curmallow, Fi∣lipendula, peony, Avens, Strawberry, Bistort, Rhaponticum, Rhubarb tosted. Leaves, of plantane, Knotgrass, Gnaphalium, Loof-strife, Solomons Seal, Horstail, Shepherds-pouch, Mous-ear, Oak. Flowers, of Roses, pome∣granates, Ivy. Seeds, of plantane, purslane, Sorrel, Roses. Fruits, Quinces, Medlars, Barberries, Services, Cornel-berries, Galls, Raison-stones, Cypress nuts, myrtle berries. Shels and Rinds, of pomegranates, Frankin∣cense tree, myrobalans, mulberries. Gums, of mastich, Dragons blood. Juyces, of Hy∣pocistis, sour Grapes, Acacia. Minerals, Terra sigillata, Bole armeniack, blood-stone, Allum, Coral, Iron. Of Animals, Harts∣horn prepared, Stags pizzle, &c. Of Com∣pounds are, Water of Roses, purslane, plan∣tane, privet. Syrup of red Roses, Quinces, Barberries, marmalade of Quinces, Diacodium narcoticum, Crocus martis astringens, pouder of mans bones calcined, fresh made Treacle, Juyce of pomegranates, of Acacia, old conserve of Red Roses. The stronger sort of these me∣dicaments are, Balaustians, myrtles, Acacia, Hypocistis, Sumach, pomegranate, medlar, &c.

IV. Anastomaticks, are medicaments which open the mouths of the Vessels, and are therefore by the Greeks so named, because they ought to penetrate into the inner parts of the body, and to attenuate gross humors; and ther∣fore they ought to be both hot in the second degree, and endued with a more thick sub∣stance than ordinary, that they may retain heat the longer. Bitter things are most convenient.

Point VII. Of Attenuating, Aperient, and incrassating Medicaments.

I. Attenuating medicaments, are such as dissolve and make thin, thick, clammy, and glewish humors, so that either they vanish of their own accord, or are easily dissipated by the operation of Drawers. They must be of a thin substance, hot in the third degree; which is nevertheless, not alwaies necessary. For the juyce of Lemmons, Vinegar, Oxymel, do atte∣nuate, and cut, though they are cold. See the Catalogue among Operatives.

II. Apperitive medicaments, do open in∣ward Obstructions of the Body. They ought to be of a thin substance; and therefore are reckoned among such things as appear hot and biting to the smel and tast, which have a ni∣trous, salt, bitter, and acid tast: but seeing there is variety both of the matter obstructing, and the bodies obstructed, somtimes such as are of thin parts, sometimes such as are not so qualified, are given. Now they are these; Among Simples, of Roots, the five o∣pening Roots, so called, viz. (of Smallage, Fennel, Asparagus, parsly, and Holm) of Grass, Cicaory, Eryngos, Gentian, Fern, madder, Rhaponticum, Asarum, Cappars, Ta∣marisk, Ash. Herbs, Fumitory, Worm∣wood, Agrimony, maiden-hair, Liver-wort, ceterach, chamepitys, chamedrys, Dodder, Horehound, calamint, penyroyal, scurvy∣grass, Brooklime, Water-cresses, Hops, white Horehound, Wormwood. Seeds of Annis, Fennel, Ameos, Agnus castus, Vetches, Lu∣pines. Fruits, bitter Almonds, Cappars, Peach-kernels, Apricock-kernels. Spices, Cinamon, Cubebs. Gums and juyces, Am∣moniacum, Vinegar, Juyce of Lemmons. Of compounds are, waters of the foresaid simples; Oximel simple, Scyllitick, Syrupe of opening roots, Trocbiscks of Rubarb, Wormwood, Egrimony, Lacca-gum. Tartar Vitriolated, Creame thereof, Christals and Tincture of Tartar. Tincture of steele, pouder, aperient crocus and pils thereof.

III. Incrassaters or thickners, do make the thin and liquid juices more thick. They are cold or temperate without acrimonie, and of thick substance; such as, Porslane, Sorrel, Poppy, Rice, Lentils, Quinces, Peares, Starch, Chalybeate milk, and juice of Pomegranates.

Point, VIII. Of Obstructive, And Deobstructive Medicaments.

I. Emplastick or obstructive medicaments are such as by their substance, do daub, stop and clam up the passages of the Body, and being smeared thereon, stick fast thereto being of a Consistence, either dry and earthy, but without any biting quality, or ful of watry and aerie humor. They are.

  • I. Among simples. 1. Roots; Of Marshmallowes, White-Lillies; Seeds, Wheate, Starch, Pine-kernels steeped in water, Fenugreek, al Mucilages. Fruits, Figs, Raisons. Gums, Arabick, Tragant, Dragons blood. Earths; Terra sigillata, Bole-Armeniack. Juyces; Alum. Stones, Lapis Calaminaris, Blood-stone, Potters-clay. Minerals, litteridge of Gold and Silver, Lead, Oare of brass, Pom∣pholyx; Cerus. Animals, Mumia, fresh fats, marrowes, fresh butter, Cheese, whites of Eggs, Wax.
  • II. Compounds of these; Unguentum Album, Nutritum.

II. Deobstructers, do scoure away clam∣my glutinous humors, which stick unto the body; they are hot or cold, salt, bitter, ni∣trous. Such are I. Of Simples. 1. Roots of birthwort, Orice, Gentian, Solomons seale, Tamarisk. Leaves; of Smallage, Wormwood, Centorie, Southernwood, Hy∣sop, Watercresses, Horehound, Agrimony, Ground-Oake, Tansey, Harts-tongue, Pim∣pernel. Seeds; of Lime, Fenugreek, barly, Orobus, Lupines, and their meales. Juyces; Aloes and Sugar. Gums; myrrh. Rosins; Terpentine. Mineralls; verdi∣grise, Vitriol. Animals; whey, beasts-Gal. 

III. Extergents; differ only gradually. Of this kind are Oxymel, Alume water, Unguentum Aegyptiacum, &c.

Point, VIII. Of Anodynes, and Narco∣ticks.

Anodyne Medicaments are those which by their moderate heate, and soft substance, do as∣swage paine, by opening the pores of the body, and entering thereinto by the tenuity of their substance; and discuss the cause thereof by in∣sensible transpration. Such are.

  • I. Among Simples, the Roots; of Marsh-mallowes, Lillies. Leaves; of Mallowes, Elder. Flo∣wers; of Chamemel, Melilote, Safron. Seeds, of Lime, Fenugreek. Animals; Fats, of Hogs, Hens, Geese, Calves, Man-fat. Mar∣row; of Oxen, Calves. Milke, butter.
  • II. Of Compounds, oiles; of white lillies, Chamo∣mel, Violets, sweet almonds, linseed, worms, and (which is most commended) sweet oile of Roses, of a middle age.

II. Narcoticks stupifie the part, so that it cannot feel that which pains. This they do, partly by their coldness, partly by an hidden Quallity. Of this kind are.

  • I. Simples, the Roots of Mandrake; Leaves of Henbane, mandrake. Seeds, of white-poppey. Juyces, Opium.
  • II. Compounds: oiles, of Mandrake Ʋnguentum popeleon, laudanum ossiatum, Fernelius his narcotick lozenges.
Spirit of Darnel, &c.

Article. 2. Of Medicaments which cause motion.

Medicines which cause motion are either Drawers, Repellers, or Astringents.

I. Drawers, are such as draw from the deepe parts of the Body into the surface there∣of, not only thin and wheyish humors, but also such as are thick, and fast rooted in the Parts of the Body. They are either hot in the second degree, which draw moderately; or in the third degree, which draw strongly; or in the fourth degree, which swel the skin. Such are.

  • I. Of simple Roots, of the two Birthworts, Anemony, bindweed, Tragon, Gentian, Pellitory, Crowfoot, Daffodilly, Reeds, Cuckow pintle, Thapsia, Garlick, onions. Leaves: of Wild-Cresses, Calamint, Purple Anagallis, Nex, Thlaspi, Ivie. Seeds, of Nettle, Navew, Water-cresses. Gums, Euphorbium, Ammoniacum, Galbanum, Sagapenum. Rosins; Pitch, Vulgar Rosin. Annimals; Dung of Pigeons, Hens, Can∣tharides.
  • II. Of Compounds, Emplastrum Oxycroceum.

II. I cal them repellers, which do either by their cold watryness prohibit the influx of humors into any part; or drive back such as are already flowed in, but are not fastened. They are. 1. Among simples; the Roots, of Plantane. Barks; of Mandrake roots; Leaves; of Housleek, Purstane, Duck-weed, Endive, Lettuce, Nightshade, Water-thistle, Venus navil, Lentisk, Sumach, Henbane. Flowers; of red roses. Seeds; of Fleawort Plantane. Of compounds; Waters of Ro∣ses, Nightshade, Plantane.

III. Astringents are such as consist of a thick and earthy substance, stop the passages of the part, force out the the thinner particles of the humor, and consequently do also repel. They are either Cold or Hot. Cold are, a∣mong Simples, the Roots; of Sloes, Cinque∣foile, bistort, tormentil, great Comfery. Barks; of myrobalans, Pomegranates, Frankincense tree, Barbery-tree. Leaves; of Horse-taile, smal daisie, mouse-eare, Knot-grass, Shepards pouch. Flowers: of Roses balaustians. Seeds of Sorrel, porslane, myrtils, White-popy. Fruits, Services, Quinces, meddlers, myrtle berries, unripe mulberries. Gums, mastich, Dragons-blood. Earths; Terra sigillata, bolus Armenia. Of compounds: are Waters of Roses, of Plantane, of Privet flowers. Syrups; of red-roses, of Quinces. Conserves, of dried-roses, Quinces, New made treacle. Juice of Pomegranates, trefoile, Crabs, sower Grapes. Pouders: Diacorallium, Crocus martis, Burnt harts horne, mans-bones, Spodi∣um, Ambar. Pills: de Cynoglossa. Hot astringents are, Cyperus, Wormwood, Cala∣mus Aromaticus, Schaenanth, aloe, Thus, Myrrh, Spike, Barks of Frankincense-tree, Cypress∣nuts, Alum.

Article, 3. Of Medicaments which ge∣nerate somewhat.
Point, 1. Of Ripeners, Quittor-breeders, and Flesh restorers.

Medicaments which breed somewhat are in a six-fold difference.

  • 1. Ripeners or Quit∣tor-breeders.
  • 2. Flesh-breeders.
  • 3. Glew∣ers.
  • 4. Scarbringers.
  • 5. Milke-breeders,
  • 6. Seed-encreasers.

I. Ripeners, and Quittor-breeders, are such by whose helpe, the Natural Heat turnes corrupt blood into Quittor. They are moderately hot and moist, and like in tem∣perament to the part whereunto they are appli∣ed. Also by shutting the pores, they keep in the heate. They are in a twofold difference. Some are meerly of a temperate heate, and clammy which we use in hot tumors, such as are, Mucilages of Lin-seed, Fenugreek, Mal∣lowes, Marshmallowes, Water and oile, Wheate-meale, Milke, Crum of wheaten breade, Hogs-grease, fresh-butter, Unguen∣tum Dialthea. Others are hot, which we use in cold tumors and parts; such as the Gums, Ammoniacum, Bdellium, Galba∣num. Rosins; Terpentine, Pitch, Vulgar rosins. Teares of Firr, Birch and Pine-tree. Oiles of Chamomel, White-Lillies. Oint∣ments; of Agrippa, Basilicon, Majus and minus. Emplasters; diachylon simple and cum gummi. II. Sarcoticks or Flesh-bree∣ders are such things as assist nature to change blood into flesh, both by preserving the Heate of the Part, and removeing such Excrements as hinder the work. They do moderately heat and drie; also they clense away filth, without any biteing, or astriction. They are of a Three fold Rank, In the first ranke or degree, are placed meale of Barly, of Fenu∣greek, of beanes; Franckincense, Manna, thuris. In the Second, Terpentiue rosin, Larch-rosin, Fir-rosin, Clarified Honey, hony of Roses. Aloes, meale of Lupines, orobus, and Pompholyx. In the third de∣gree, meale of Orobus, raw honey, birth∣wort root, orice roote, myrrh, Vitiol.

Point 2. Of Sodderers, and Scar-bringers.

I. Glewing, or soddering Medicaments, are such as bring together the gaping lips of fresh wounds, and binder any thing from flowing into, or growing between them. Of which kind are among Simples, the Roots of Tor∣mentil, Cinque-foile, Bistort. Leaves; of Mouse-eare, plantaine, Sr. Johns-wort, Bugula, Sanicle, Pyrola, Wal-Sage, Rup∣ture-wort, Willow, Vervaine. Gumsz Myrch, Frankincense, Saccocolla. Jucies thickned; Aloes, Hypocstis. Rosins; Pitch, Terpenrine. Of compounds; Oynt∣ment of Lituridge, of Betony.

II. Scarbringers, are Medicaments which consume both that which flowes to, and that humor which is already in the flesh, that the flesh may be changed into the similitude of Skin. Thick are of thick substance, vehement∣ly drying, astringent and contracting. The cheife are, Roots, of tormentil, Cinquesoil. Herbes; Comfry, Thorough-waxe, Horse∣taile, Plantane. Flowers; balaustians. Juyces concrete, Coral, Aloes, Juyce of dragon. Earths; Alum, Ecle Armeniack. Metelline substances, Lead, Cadmia, Litter∣idg, Brass-burnt, and washed, Antimony.

III. Hitherto belong Vulnerary Medi∣caments, of which vulnerary potions are made. And they are, the roots; of greate Comfry, Bistort, Tormentil. Leaves; of Lady∣mantile, Shephards-pouch, Golden-rod, Bal∣saminum, Vervaine, Fluellin, St. Johns∣wort, Millefoil, Sanicle, Hors-taile, Elme, Plantaine, Betony, Cypress, Mouse-eare. Flowers; of red-roses, St. Johns wort, Ba∣laustians. Fruits; Cypress nuts. Gums, Teares; Frankincense, Aloe, Mastich, Teares of the firr, Terpentine, pine and larch rosins, Stone-pitch, liquor of Elme-leaves, Gum Elemi, Gum of Juniper, of Ivie, of Tragant, Tacamahaca, caranna, Sarcocolla, Dragons-Blood &c.

Point, III. Of Milke and Seed-bree∣ders.

1. Milk-breeding Medicaments in this place are such, as both helpe to make good blood, and moderately attenuate the same and bring it to the Duggs, such as are these fol∣lowing: green Fenel, the seed thereof, Green Dil, Smalladge, pouder of Christal, De∣coction of Colewort, Butter taken with milke and fenel, Smyrnium, Polium, Roc∣ket, &c.

II. Seed-breeding Medicaments, both those which carrie matter to the spermatick vessels, and they which provoke to the expulsion of seed whether they fil it with wind, or ad a spir or provocation thereto. The cheif are these, Roots; of Eryngos, Satyrion, Ginger. Seeds; of Rocket, Mustard, Nettles, Pepper. Fruits Pine-kernels, Pistachios, Hasel nuts, the Pap of the Indian nut. Parts of Animals; Reins of the Scinci, Braines of Sparrowes, Stags-Pizzle, Cocks-stones.

Article, IV. Of corrupting. Medica∣ments.

Corruptive Medicaments are.

  • 1. Rubisiers.
  • 2. Vesicatories.
  • 3. Such as induce a Grust.
  • 4. Burners.
  • 5. Corrosives.
  • 6. Putrefiers.
  • 7. Psilothra, hair-grubbers, 
  • 8. Milke-wasters.
  • 9. Seed-confounders.

1. Rubifiers make the skin red, and draw Humors from the inner parts of the Body into the skin, such as are the Roots of Thapsia, Seeds of Water-cresses, Nettles, Mustard.

II. Vesicatories raise bladders, and by their Ardency draw forth humors. The cheife are, Roots, of Bind-weed, Pellitoty, Squil, Garlick, Thapsia. Herbs; Doves-foot, Flam∣mula, Crow-foot. Seed; Of water cresses, Mustard. Also, Euphorbium, Leaven, Soap, Pidgeons-dung, Cantharides.

III. Crust-Creators, do not only raise up the scarfe-skin, but also burne the skin it self, howbeit their operation goes no further.

IV. Burners or Causticks, bring a thiker crust than the former, and often work upon the flesh beneathe, the cheife are: White Hellebore, ashes of vine-dregs, ashes of the fig-tree, Ashe, and savine tree. Brass-burnt, flower of brass, quick-lime, Vitriol, orpment, Arfenick, mercury sublimate, Salt made of Lie of which soap is made,

V. Corroders, take away proude flesh, and do by little and little, melt the upper surface thereof. The milder are, Roots of white vine, black-hellebore. Ashes of the Oake, fig-tree, Conchylium. Aloe, Alum; burnt lead, Ancimony calcined. The stronger are; Quick-lime, Flower of Brass, Brass∣burnt, Vitriol calcined, Quick-silver preci∣pitate, Sublimate, Oyl of vitriol, sulphur &c.

VI. Putrifiers, do melt hard flesh. Such are Arsenick, Orpment, Chrysocolla, dryop∣teris, Pityocampe, aconitum, Sandarach.

VII. Hair-grubbers, are such medicines as pluck up by the Roots the Haires of the Body, so as to make the part where they are applied, bald and smooth; such as are, strong lie, quick-lime, ants-egs, sandarach arsenick, orpment &c.

VIII. Milke-wasters, do either incrassate and thicken the blood, by overcooleing it, or they dry up and digest the same, or finally they do by their whole substance destroy the Milke. Such are, Mints, Sage, Calamint, Coriander, Henbane, Oyl of unripe Olives, Vinigar, Camphire.

IX. Seed confounders, do either coole, thicken, or discuss the same, or consume it by an hidden property. Such are: Mint, Rue, Agnus Castus, Dil, Seeds of Hempe, Flea∣wort. Lettuce, Purslaine, Champhire &c.

Article. V. Of Medicaments which take somewhat away.
Point. 1. Of Purgeing Medicaments.

Medicaments which take something from the Body are:

  • 1. Purgers.
  • 2. Vomiters.
  • 3. Diureticks.
  • 4. Sweaters.
  • 5. Transpirers.
  • 6. Braine-purgers.
  • 7. Expectorators.

Purgers are such Medicaments, as drive out by stool, such humors as preternaturally nestle themselves in mans body. And they are

  • 1. Choler-purgers.
  • 2. Phlegm-purgers.
  • 3. Melancholly-purgers.
  • 4. Water-pur∣gers.
  • 5. Purgers of all humors together.

1. Choller-purgers, are medicaments which drive out preternatural choler. And they are 1. Mild; as among simples, Cassia fistularis, which because it is hurtful to a moist slippery belly and to the stomach, and is windy, it is corrected with a graine or two of peper, ani∣seed or Cinamon, and is given in a bole, com∣monly from sixe drams to two ounces; to children two drams may be given. Tamarins or Indian dates, convenient for hot Constitu∣tions; which because of their coldness, are corrected with Cinnamon and Mace, and by reason of their lazyness, they are quickned with whey of Goates-milk. They are given in Pulpe, from an ounce to two ounces or three, and in the Infusion to five ounces. Manna Calabrina, which is safe in al cases, except∣ing burning fevers; tis quickned, with syrup of Roses solutive. It is taken in Prune-broath, or the Broath of a Cock or Hen, to the Quan∣tity of three or four ounces. Aloe Soccotrina, which taken in too greate a Quantity inflames the Liver: because it opens the orifices of the Veines tis not safe for women with child. Nor is it good for hot and dry natures. 'Tis nou∣rished or impredgnated with juice of damaske Roses. 'Tis corrected with mastich because of its Acrimonie. It is given from halfe a dram to a dram & more: see thereof Solenander, sect. 3. Counsel, 29. Rhubarb, the soule of the Liver, which must not be given alone, be∣cause it is apt to fume, and easily exhales, but with endive water, or syrup of Roses so∣lutive; it must not be given to such as are trou∣bled with the strangury, nor those that are sub∣ject to the Hemorrhoides. 'Tis corrected with Cinnamon, Spicknard, Schenanth. 'Tis given from one dram to two drams. Dam∣askroses, musked, fragrant, bitter and de∣tergent. Their Virtue is encreased, if two ounces of whey be mixed with an ounce of their juyce, a little spike and Cinnamon being added. Violets, which are of like vertue with roses, exceeding good in diseases of the Brest and Head-ache. Terpentine, especially pis∣tick, which with pouder of Lycoris and Sugar, is made into Boles, and given to clense the kidnies. Lemnius commends it in a potion. Among compounds are, Syrup of roses solu∣tive, hurtful for women with child, because it opens the veines of the wombe, from two oun∣ces to four. Rose-leaves must be gathered while the morning dew is upon them. Their strength lasts hardly beyond six monthes. Syrup of the flowers of Acacia, de Manna Laxa∣tivus, Horstius his syrupe of tamarinds with senna. Pilulae Angelicae, Benedicta Bejeri. Hiera mellita, from a dram to four drams. II. The stronger are, amonge simples, Asar∣um, which being long boiled loses its strength; very wel beaten, it moves vomit. It is given with whey, wine and honey sod together. Scammonie, which must never be given to such as are inclined to vomit, feverish, weak persons, in the summer, in broaths, alone, because its acrimonie disturbes the body, in∣flames the spirits, hurts the principal parts. 'Tis corrected with juice of Quinces, mucilage of Gum Tragant, spirit of sulphur or vitriol. Be∣ing corrected tis called Diagrydium. 'Tis given from five graines to fifteen. Of com∣pounds are Pilulae Rhudji to a scruple; Au∣reae, which are most in use. Extract of Sca∣monie. The Magisterie thereof, which see in Mynsichtus and Grulingius.

II. Phlegme-purging Medicaments are such as draw excrementitious flegm out of the Body. And they are.

  • 1. More gentle a∣mong simples, Myrobalans, Chebulan, and Emblican; which are to be avoided in ob∣structions of the Gutts or Bowels; they are steeped in Chick-broath to an ounce, or boiled therein, with muscadine. Cnicus or Cartha∣mus seeds, which purge water, and crude flegme, and raise wind; because they pro∣voke vomit, they are corrected with Anise, Ginger and Mastich. Mechoacan, which is of subtile parts mingled with Earthy. Of exquisite tertian Agues, it makes double ones. It works most happily in the forme of a pouder, or if it be steeped a night, in wine, or broath, and drunke in the Morning. Amonge com∣pounds are, spices of Hiera picra simple. Lozenges of Mechoacan, described by Hor∣stius.
  • II. Vehement Flegme-purgers are, among simples, Agarick, which by a peculiar Faculty frees the Lungs from clammy thick and putrid humors. 'Tis afer in the Infusion, than in the substance. Jalop, which is most proper, where choler is mixt with flegme. The Dose is from a scruple to two scruples, with cream of Tartar... It has in it somwhat of Acrimony. Turpetum gummie and white, which because it hurts the Stomach & provokes Vomit, is corrected with Ginger, Pepper and Cinnamon. By its dryness it brings the bodies of those that over use it, into a Consumption. It works best in a decoction. Coliquintida, which purges thick and clammy Humors from the remote parts; and because it sticks to the fibres of the stomach, it provokes vomiting. It must not be corrected by astringents, for they detain it, being a violent medicine, too long in the Body. Hermodactyls, which purge thick humors from the Joynts, and are corrected by atenuaters. Euphorbium, which is hot and dry, in the fourth degree: because it inflames the Jaws and Throat, vexes the Sto∣mach and Liver, raises cold sweat, 'tis corre∣cted with cordials and Stomach strengtheners, but best of al with Oyl of Roses. It must not be used inwardy before it be a year old. Saga∣penum which brings out clammy and thick Humors. Of compounds are, Pils of Saga∣pena of Horstius and Camillus. Syrup of Coloquintida, and Lozenges of Jalap, &c.

III. Melancholy purgers, are such as drive excrementitious melancholy out of the Bo∣dy. And they are,

  • 1. Gentle. Among sim∣ples, Indian Myrobalans, which are princi∣pally given in quartan Agues, and purge adust choler. Epithymum, which by a peculiar property above all other medicines, purges this Humor, howbeit but weakly. 'Tis more safely used in the Winter than the Summer. That of Crete, is the best. Polypodie of the Oak, which because it binds when it is old, must be used fresh and new gathered. That which grows on over old Oaks, by its overmuch Humidity, subverts the stomach. Sena, which is used to draw humors out of the Mesentery, in the broth of Prunes, Reisons, and in Whey, &c. its cods, if gathered when ful of juyce be∣fore they are fully ripe, wil work as the leaves doe; but withering upon the stalk, they lose al their virtue. Among Comporunds are, Syrup of polypody, and Epthymum. Pils of Fumitory. Pouder of Sena of Montagna∣na, &c.
  • II. The stronger sort are, among simples, Lapis Armenius, which must be so long washed in cordial waters, til no more foulness appear. Lapis lazuli, which must be used after the same manner. Black Helle∣bore, which is least dangerous, in the decocti∣on. 'Tis best corrected with the flegm of Vi∣triol. An excellent way and Elegant to give it, is, to stick an apple with cloves and black Hel∣lebore Roots, and roast it in the Embers. A∣mong Compounds are, Extract of black Hellebore, and Syrup of the same, in Heur∣nius.

IV. Water-purgers are Medicaments which drive waters out of Mans body.

  • 1. The more gentle are, among simples, Soldanella or Sea-Colewort, which extreamly delights in the company of Rhubarb, and loses not its Vertue by boyling. 2. Germane Orice, which provokes the Courses, and loses its force, by boiling. The juyce of the Root is put in an Egshel with the yolk of the Egg, and so they are boil'd together or roasted til the Egg be soft boyled, so as it may be supt. Among Compounds are, Conserve of Peach Flowers, Pouder of Soldanella of Fowentinus, &c.
  • II. The more vehement sort are, Ela∣terium, which slips even without the Veins and draws water away. It may be given to strong persons to the quantity of ten grains, if wel corrected [understand in German Bo∣dies and tough english plough-men or Sad∣lors] 'tis corrected with Cinamon, Spike, &c. Cambogia, which because it makes the Sto∣mach a little sick, it is corrected with Spirit of Salt and Mace. The use thereof is hurtful to cholerick natures. See thereof Reudenius and Lotichius. Hedge-Hyssop, which works upwards & downwards. It is dried and steeped in milk, & then dried again, so as that it may be reduced to pouder. Esula, whose Milk, Seed, Leaves are very strong, but the Root more mild. It must not be used til a month after it has been gathered. That is best, which is five or 〈◊〉 months old. The Bark of the Root is chiefly in use. 'Tis corrected by Infusing three dais in Vineger. Among Compounds are, the Magistery of Cambogia, Pilulae Freytagii, Oyl of Elder-berry Stones.

V. Purgers of al Humors together, which are called Catholica and Panchymagoga; are these which follow: of simples, Sena, Hellebore, Antimony, &c. Of the compounds, Panchymagogum Crollii, Vegitabtle, Para∣celsi, Extractum Catholicum majus & minus. Electuarium Diacatholicon, &c.

Point 2. Of Vomitories and Diureticks.

Vomitories are such Medicaments as cast forth bad humors, by the Mouth.

Which they do, either because they natu∣rally tend upwards; or because they swim upon the Stomach and burthen the same; or because they loosen the upper Orifice of the Stomach. Of this sort are,

  • I. The more gen∣tle, simple water, Luke-warm water, Barley water, fat broaths, simple Oyl with wa∣ter, Butter, Hydromel. Root of Orach, Gar∣den Cowcomber, Melons, Daffodillies, Asa∣rum. Flowers of Peaches, of which conserve is made. Seeds of Rocket, Orach. The middle Rind of a Walnut Tree, when it is ful∣lest of juyce, especially the Cats-tailes there∣of. Electuary of Asarum of Fernelius.
  • II. The stronger sort are, white Hellebore. The Vomitory of Cunradinus, which is given from three drops to ten drops. Gilla of Paracelsus. White vitriol vomitory. Sala his salt of vitri∣ol. Flores Mercurii argentei. Mercurius Vi∣tae, Mercurius dulcis, Manna Mercurii, Aquila-Flowers of Antimony, Oyl and Electuary of Antimony, and Crocus Metallorum. Aqua benedicta of Quercetanus, Pismire water, Platerus his Wine, Heurneus his Helleborate wine, Aqua Benedicta Rulandi.

II. Diureticks, are medicaments which provoke Ʋrine, and by that means evacuate withal the morbifick matter.

They are twofold:

  • 1. Properly so called, which easily penetrate into the Veins, and therein melt the Humors with their heat, and they are Roots of Parsly, Smallage, Eringos, Ruscus, Asparagus, Pimpernel. Herbs, A∣sarum, Liver-wort, Chervil, Scordium. Seeds, of Gromwel, Chervil, Saxifrage. Fruits, bitter Almonds, Peach Kernels, &c. among chymical preparations, is spirit of Salt, and whatever things are compounded of Tartar.
  • II. Improperly so called, and they either hot, as Maiden-hair, Terpentine, Ambona Root, of which see Zacutus. Or moist and which lenifie the passages, as Mallow-seeds, Marshmallow, Lycorice. Or cold, as Strawberries, Barly, the four cool seeds, Bath-waters, Whey of Milk, Juice of Lemons. Also Peach-Kernel water with Muscadine is commended. The whitest slints heated red hot and quenched in rich Wine, Oyl of Wax from five drops to six. Salt of Amber, an half dram in weight. Water of Hips, Oyl of Juniper Berries, &c.

Point 3. Of Hydroticks and Diaphore∣ticks.

Hydroticks are, such medicaments as drive out the morbifick matter by the habit of the body, in a sensible manner, viz. by sweat.

They are otherwise termed Sudorificks. The act by reason of their heat and thinness or subtilty of parts, turning the peccant matter into a vapor; and they which are cold, do act by a propriety of their Substance. Now they are, I. Either Simples, as Angelica, Pim∣pinella, Fumitory, Tormentil, Zedoary, Chi∣na, Sarsaparilla, Sassafras, Lignum Guajacum, Cornu Cervi, Bezoar stone, oriental and occi∣dental.

2. Or Compounds, as, Orenge-Flower Water and Treacle water. Spirit of terra si∣gilata, Tartar, Carduus, de tribus, Treacle, Mithridate. Salt of Scabious, Carduus, Wormwood, Ash. Among chymical prepa∣rations, there is Aurum Diaphoreticum, Flo∣wers of Antimony fixed, Turpetum minera∣le diaphoreticum, Sulfur Auratum, Bezoar∣dicum joviale, &c.

II. Transpirers properly termed Diaphore∣ticks, are such medicaments as drive the mor∣bifickmater through the pores of the Skin, in∣visibly. They are al hot, turn the Matter in a vaporous steam, and open the bodies pores. The chief are, Melilote, Fenugreek, Rue, Marjerom. Of Kin to these, are Wind-discus∣sers, such as are the Roots of the smaller Ga∣langal. Leavs of Bayes, Dictamus Penyroi∣al, Origanum, Rue, Marjerom. Seeds of An∣nis, Fenel, Carway, Cumin, Carrot. Fruits, Bay-berries, Juniper berries. Barks of Ci∣trons, Orenges, &c.

Point 4. Of Medicaments which purge the Brain.

Brain-purgers are such as void the morbi∣fick matter nestling in the Brain, by the No∣strils or Pallate. The former are called Er∣rhina and Ptarmica; the latter Apophleg∣matizantia.

I. Errhina, do by their nitrous quality melt and dissolve the flegm which hangs about the Coats of the Brain, and draw it out into the Nostrils, without any disturbance to the Brain it self. The chief are, the Roots of O∣rice, Bindweed. Leaves of Bete, purple A∣nagallis, Marjerom, Sage, Betony, Ivy. Juy∣ces, Elaterium, which is the strongest, and Juyce of Pulsatilla. Also they may be made out of the foresaid roots and Leaves.

II. Ptarmica, or Sneezers, do by their Acrimony so provoke the Expulsive Faculty of the Brain, as to cause it to cast them out, and with them such excrements as stick in the Brain it self. The cheif are, the Roots of Ginger, Pellitory, Orice white Hellebore. Leaves, of sneezewort, Tobacco Seeds, Pe∣per, Mustard, Staphisacre, Nigella, Gums, Euphorbium, whose smel alone is sufficient.

III. Apophlegmatizers, Being either chew∣ed, or gargled, or smeared upon the Palate, bring down the Excrements from the Braine into the Palate and mouth. They are made of rootes, of Ginger, Pellitory of spaine. Seeds, of peper, watercresses, Mustard, Staphisacre; Gum; mastick.

Point, V. Of Expectorators.

Expectorateing Medicaments are those which evacuate humors contained in the chest and Lungs.

They are made of Roots of Alecampane, Birthwort, Angelica, Orice, Cuckow-pintle, Squills, Lycorice. Of the Leaves of Hyssop, Maiden-haire, Scabious, Horehound, Colts foot. Seeds of Cotton, Watercresses, Erysi∣mum, Seseli, Nettles. Fruites, reisons, jujbes, sebestens, Almonds, Figs, Pistachios. Hither also appertaines Sperma, Ceti. See more of these in the Chest-medicines.

Chap. 6. Of Medicaments denomi∣nated from the parts of the Body.

Article. 1. Of Cephalik Medicaments.
Point. 1. Of Cephalick Medicaments, which are hot.

ANd so we have done with our Muster of such Medicaments, as are denominated from their faculties: those follow, which re∣ceive their denomination from the parts of the Body, with which they have an Agreement, by reason of their whol substance and specifical properties.

Now they are these, Caphalicks, Ophthal∣micks, Thoracicks, Cardiacks, Stomachicks, Hepaticks, Spleneticks, Nephriticks, and Ʋterine Medicaments. And al these are ei∣ther Hot or Cold, Internal or External.

I. Internal heating Cephalicks are, 1. Of Simples, Roots of Paeonie, Caryophillata, Birthwort, Masterwort, Calamus Aromati∣cus. Leaves; of Primrose, Betony, Rose∣mary, Marjerom, Centory, Sage. Flowers; of the Linden-tree, Stachados of Arabia, Lilly-convally, Peony, Primrose, Betony. Seeds, of Amomum, Peonie, Mountaine withie, Coriander. Fruits; Kermes Berries, Ana∣cardia, Bay and Juniper berries. Spices, Cu∣bebs, Nutmeg, Cardamom, Cloves. Woods, Miseltoe of the Oake, and of the Hasel. Tears; Frankincense, Storax; Sea-commodities, Amber, Ambergreise. From Animals; Mosk, Castoreum. II Of compounds: Water, of black cherries, of Lilly-convally, Peony, Linden, Gilloflower, Primrose, O∣range-flowers, Treacle-water. Tinctures, Elixit proprietatis, of Peony, of Sassafras wood. Distilled oiles. Of Rosemary, Marjerom, Sage, Rue, Ambar, Spike, &c. Syrups, of stechados, Betony, Gilloflow∣ers, Peony. Conserves, of Betony, Sage, Rosemary flowers, Lilly-convally, Centorie, Stechados. Preserves; Nutmegs preserved, Indian Nut preserved, Preserved wallnuts. Electuaries, Confectio Alkermes, Treacle, Mithridate, Diacastoreum. Spices of Diam∣bra, Dianthos, Diamoschum dulce, Diacasto∣reum.

II. External heateing Cephalicks are.

  • I. Among Simples, al those wel nere, before re∣lated. Leaves of Rue, Running betony, up∣right vervaine, are exceedingly commended.
  • II. Among compounds are, Oyls, of Sassa∣fras wood, Oyle of Rue, Nard Oyle, Oyle of Baies, of Castorem. Balsoms, of Roses, of Rosemary, of Nutmeg, Marjerom, Sage, Ambar. Emplasters, de Betonica, de Muci∣lagnibus, de Baccis Laury.

Point. 2. Of cooleing Cephalick Medica∣ments.

Cephalick cooling Medicaments are like∣wise internal, or external.

I. Internal are, 1. Of Simples, the Roots, of Mandrake, the Leaves of Lettuce, Perslane, Plantane, Night-shade, Water-lillies, Henbane. Flowers, of Roses, white popie, Red-poppie, purple violets, water∣lillies. Seeds, four greater and smaller coole∣seeds. Fruits, of Gourd, Cucumbers. Woods, of Sanders. II. Of Compounds. Waters of Roses, Violets, Lettuce, Water∣lilly, Night-shade. Juices; Opium, Vine∣gar of Roses. Syprups, of white poppie, red popie, Roses, Water-lillies. Conserves, of Lettuce, and of the flowers aforesaid. E∣lectuaries, Diacodion simplex and composi∣tum, Diaolibanum opiatum, Ladanum opi∣atum. Speices, Diatrion santalon de gemis frigidum, Diacorallium.

II. External are, I. Of Simples; Leaves of Willow, Vine, Venus Navil, Mandrake. The rest may be taken from the foregoing. II. Of compounds; Waters, of Henbane, Let∣tice, Water-lillies, Plantaine, Nightshade, Elders, Roses. Juyces; of the Birch-tree, House-leeke, &c. Oyles, of Poppeyes, Violets, Water-lillies, Lettice-seed, Man∣drakes, Frogs. Ointments of Roses, Ala∣blaster, Album camphoratum, Refrigerans Galeni, Populeum.

Article, 2. Of Ophthalmick Medica∣ments.

Ophthamlick or Eye-medicaments, are either Heating or Cooleing; and they are both ex∣ternal and internal.

I. Internal Heateing Eye-medicaments are.

  • I. Of Simples, Roots of valerian, Fenel, Celondine, Navew, Rapes. Leaves of the greater Celondine, Fumitory, Eyebright, Pimpernel, Rosemary. Flowers; of Ey∣bright, Celondine, Marygolds. Seeds, of Anis, Rue, Siler montanus, Turnips. Spices, Safron, Lignum-aloes.
  • II. Of Compounds, Waters of Vervaine, Celondine the greater, Fenel, Vervaine, Rue, Centaury the less. Syrups, of Betony, Eye-bright. Electua∣ries, Treacle, Mithridate; Conserves, of Eye-bright, Rosemary-flowers, Betony, Sage, Gillowflowers, Extract, of Lignum-Aloes.

II. External are,

  • I. Of simples, the Roots of Vervaine, Valerian. The Leaves, of which mention has been often-made. Flowers of Hypericon, Melilote, consolida regalis. Seeds, of Clarie or Clear-Eie, Line, Fenu∣greek.
  • II. Of compounds, Aqua Saccarata, Calendule, Mellis, Mullein, Elder, Bread. Ointments, Pomatum Dialthea.

III. Internal coolers are,

  • I. Of Simples; Roots, of Cichory, Straberry, Rapes. Leaves of Strawberry, Cichory, Plantane. Flowers of white-roses, Violets, Water-lillies. Seeds, of Quinces, white-poppie.
  • II. Of com∣pounds, Waters, Of Strawberry, Porslane, Syrups, Conserves, Species, &c. See among the Cephalicks.

IV. External coolers are.

  • I. Among Simples, the Leaves of Dandelion, Oak, &c. The Flowers, see above. Seeds, of Beanes, Fleawort, Quinces. Fruits, Pulpe of ap∣ples. A sweet apple with Sugar. Earths, Bole Armeniack, Terra Sigillata. Metalline Substances, Ceruss, Litturidge of Silver, Lapis calaminaris, Saccharum Saturni, Spodi∣um.
  • II. Of compounds, waters of Blew∣bottles, Beanes, Goose-grease, Strawberries. Mucilages, of fleawort seeds, Mallow and Marsh-mallow seeds &c.

Article, 3. Of Chest Medicaments.
Point, 1. Of Heating Brest Medicaments.

Chest Medicaments are likewise, either Heaters or Coolers, internal or external.

Internal Heaters are,

  • I. Of simples, Roots of Enula campane, Squil, round Birth-wort, Colts-foot, Pimpinel, Scordium, Scabious, Dragon, Soap-wort. Leaves, of the five capillary Herbes, Horehound, Clamint, Scabious, Fluellen, Hedera terrestris, Colts-foot, Botrys, spotted Lungwort. Hyssop, Scordium, Two-penny grass. Flowers; of Scabious, spoted lungwort, Hysop, colts foot spike, sea-grass. Seeds of wild rue, and Garden rue, of mountaine siler, sesili or Marselles, Chervil, Carduus, southern-wood. Fruites; fat-figgs, Dates, Paisons of the Sun, Indian Nut. Spices, Saffron Cassia Lignea, Cinnamon. Woods, of Sassafrass, Guajacum, Orenge peels. Earths & Gums, Bole-armeniack, Gum Am∣moniac, Myrrh, Terpentine, Choise Frankin∣cense.
  • II. Of Compounds; Waters, of Hy∣sop, Horehound, Maidenhaire, Fluellen, Ground Ivie, Scabious, Carduus, Orice, Calves-grass. Spirit, of Turpentine, Sul∣phur, Ground Ivy. Distilled Oiles, of Anise, Fennel, Mace, Sage, Creeping betony. Tin∣ctures, Elixit proprietatis, Tinctura Sulfuris, Balsam of the same, or with oile of fenel, or of sweet almonds. Extracts, of Saffron, O∣rice, Fluellen, Calamus Aromaticus, Ground Ivy. Decoctions, Decoctum pectorale, of dried Rapes, of an old Cock, of Lignum Gua∣jacum. Syrups of Hyssop, of Horehound, of Maiden hair, of the Juice of Ivy, of Fleuellen, of Scabious, of Tobacco, Oxymel simple, of Squils. Lohoch, of Colts-foot, of Fox-lungs, Lohoch sanum and Expertum, de Passulis, de althea. Conserves, of Bortys; Veronica, Pulmonaria maculosa, Hedera terrestris. E∣lectuaries, Treacle, Mithridate. Speices diai∣reos simple, Diatragacanthum frigidum, Dia∣penidium, Diathamarum. Fecular, Aronis. Flowers, of Brimstone, of Benzoin. Trochiscks Bechicalbi and nigri, Diaireos.

II. External Heaters are, I Of the simples, al those in a manner, which we formerly muster∣ed. II. Of compounds; Oiles of Orice, Rue, Costus, Cheiri, Sweet almonds and bitter, Lillies, Line: Fatts, Goose-fat, which most penetrates, Deer-suer, Hens-grease. Mu∣cilages, of Lin-seed, Fenigreek, marshmal∣lowes, with Safron. Ointments, of Marsh∣mallowes, Pectoral ointment, and Unguentum Resumptivum.

Point, 2. Of cooling Chest-medicaments.

Cooling Chest medicat•••s, are internal or external.

I. The internal are. I. Of simples; Roots, of Garden Endive, Lamb-tongue∣plantane, Polypody. Leaves, of porslane, Water-lillys, Colewort. Flowers, of Vio∣lets, mallowes, Water lillys, Bugloss, Cicho∣ry, red poppy, roses. Seeds, the four great and smal cool-seeds, seeds of poppy mallowes, quin∣ces, barly. Fruits; Hungarian & spanish prunes, mulberries, Jujubes, sebestens, of water thistle, of sweet briar dried. Woods; red sanders, yellow sanders, white Sanders, Gum tragant, Arabick. Animals; River crabs, whey, Goates-milk. II. Of compounds; Waters, of a capon simple and compound, of veale, mallowes, Violets, water-lillies, red popie. Distilled oiles; of purple violets, sweet almonds. Emulsions, of white poppie, porslane, cold seeds. De∣coctions, Decoctum pectorale in the London Dispensatory, of a Capon. Syrups; of violets. Jujubees, Water-lillies, Gourds, red poppie, porslane, Dialthae Fernelij. Lohoch, de Psyllio, of reisins, of Cole stalkes, of poslane of marsh-mallowes. Electuaries, Diacodi∣um of the Physitians of Augsburge, new Trea∣cle. Conserves, of roses, violets with boile-Armeniack, Spanish Lettuce. Species, Dia∣tragacanthi frigidi, Diapenidij. Roules, of diatragacanthum frigidum, Diamargaritum frigidum, diapenidium, sugar of roses in Lo∣zenges.

II. External are, I. Of simples; the Leaves, before aleadged. Animals, fresh may butter not salted, barrowes grease. Mu∣cilages of Fleawort seeds, of Quince seeds, of Fenigreek, of marsh-mallowes. Oiles, of violets, white lillies.

Article, 4. Of Cardiac or Heart-Medicines.
Point. 1. Of Heating Heart-Medicines.

Cardiack-medicaments are such as are good for the Heart, whether given in, or outward∣ly applied; and they are also hot or cold.

Internal are. I. Of simples; Roots of Scordium, Doronicum, Angelica, Devils-bit, Master-wort, Vince-toxicum, Scorzonera, Dictamnus, Contrajerva, Tormentil. Leaves; of Baum, scordium, sage, Tormentil, carduus, Scabious Fluellen, Cardiaca, Goates, Rue, Garden and wild Cresses. Flowers, of the Gilloflower, rosemary, scabious, Centaury, Baum, Tormentil, Borrage, Bugloss. Seeds of Citrons. Aurenges, Carduus, Rue, Lo∣vage, Navew. Spices, Nutmeg, Cassia lignea, Safron, Cloves. Woods, Lignum Aloes. Gums; myrrh, Camphire, Benzoin, Mastich. Sea-commodities, Amber, Ambar-greise. Earths and stones. Bole-Armeniack, Terra sigillata Turcica and stringensis, Perles, Cor∣als, fragments of the five precious stones. Ani∣mals, Bezoar stone, Harts-horne, Rhinoce∣rots Horn, Bone out of the Heart of a Stag. II. Of compounds, spirits of Elder and ju∣niper berries, baume, Elixir of Citrons with spirit of muscadine. Distilled waters, Of Carduus, baum, Citron-flowers, scabious, marigolds, scordium, Carbuncles, Cinnamon with Cordial flowers, Bezoardica senerty. Di∣stilled oyls, of Cinnamon, Citron, baum, Ambar, Cloves, Nutmegs. Tinctures, of am∣bar, Elixir proprietatis. Extracts, of An∣gelica, Carduus, Citron peeles, Lignum a∣loes, Vince toxicum, Zedoary, Safron. Es∣sences, the magistery of Cinnamon, Essence of Ambar, of Citrons, of Perles, of Vervaine. Juyces, of Citrons with their barks, of Pom∣granates, Gelly of Harts horne, made with Vinegar of Harts horne and scordium. Syrups of Citron peeles, with and without musk and Ambar, Scordium, Carduus, Orenges, baum, Gilloflowers, Pomgranates, veronica, Bor∣rage, Bugloss, Gallangal. Conserves, of Baum, Citron-flowers, Orenges, Gillowflowers, Mary∣golds, Borrage, Bugloss. Preserves, of Citron peeles, Orenge peeles, Indian Nut, Scorzonera roots, elecampane roots Electuaries, Treacle, Mithridate, Confectio Alkermes, Diascordium Fracastorij. Species and pouders, of Dia∣margartium calidum, Diamoschi, Diambrae, Bezoardicus.

II. External are, I. Of simples, those which have been reckoned up before. 1. The compounds likewise are the same, viz. waters, juices, distilled oiles. Of these Epithemes, bags, Fomentations and Linements are made.

Point, 2. Of cooleing Heart-medicaments.

Cooleing Hart-medicaments are either In∣ternal, or External.

I. The Internal are,

  • I. Of simples; Roots, of Dandelyon, Sorrel. Leaves; of Sorrel, wood-sorrel, Water-lillyes. Flowers, of violets, Cichory, Water-lillies. Seeds, the four cold seeds. Fruits, of Rasberry, red Corants, Barberries, Citrons, Aurenges, Pomegranats, Sweet briar berries dried. Woods; the three Sanders. Earths and medicines from Animals, are those before mentioned.
  • II. Of compounds; Waters, of Sorrel, Straw-berries, black Cherries, Quin∣ces, Hart-Stones. Juyces, of Citrons, Pomegra∣nates, Rasberries, Vinegar of Roses, Gelly of Harts-horn, made with Elder-flower Vinegar. Syrups of juyce of Citrons, of Pomegranates, of Wood sorrel, of juyce of Red Corrants, Strawberries, Lorrals, Violets. Conservs, of Citron flowers, of Aurenges, of the pulp of Citrons, of Roses, of Acacia. Preservs, of Red and White Corants, Barberies, Citron, Meates, Eglancine berries. Species and Pow∣ders, of Diamargaritum frigidum; Diatrion santalon, Magistery of Perles, of Corals.

Article 5. Of Stomach Medicaments.
Point 1. Of hot Stomach Medicaments.

Stomach medicaments are such as heat the stomach, or cool it; and that either taken in∣wardly, or outwardly applied.

Internal stomach-heaters are, 1. Of sim∣ples; Roots, of Pimpinel, Rhaponticum, Galangal, Zedoary, Calamus Aromaticus, Caryophyllata. Leaves, of Roman and com∣mon Wormwood, red and garden Mint, Car∣diaca, Cichory, Agrimony, Marjerom. Seeds; the four greater and lesser cool seeds, Corian∣der, prepared. Fruits, Juniper berries, bay-berries, Aurenges, Indian Nut. Spices, Nutmeg, Ginger, Mace, Cloves, Cinnamon, Galangal, Cubebs, al sorts of Pepper, Cassia Lignea. Woods, Lignum Aloes, Guajacum, Citron Peels, Orenge Peels. Gums, of Ma∣stich. Sea-medicines, Ambar, Ambar-greise. Of Compounds; Spirits, of Muscadine, of Rhenish Wine, of vitriol, of Mastich, of Wormwood, of Rosemary of Cinnamon, of bread. Distilled Waters, of Mints of Betony, Sage, of Cinnamon, with and without Wine, Elixir vitae, of Baum with Wine, of Zedoary with Wine. Distilled Oyls, of Peper, Cala∣mus Aromaticus, Cloves Mace, Cinnamon, Caraway, Fennel, Wormwood, Orenge Peels, Tinctures, Elixir Proprietatis, of Amber, of Corals, of Sassafras Wood. Extracts, of Lignum aloes, Wormwood, calamus aroma∣ticus. Essences; of Rosemary, Citrons, Wormwood, Aurenges; whereunto belong, Salt of Wormwood, Juniper. Syrups of Cin∣namon, Mints, Wormwood Betony, Mastich, Oximel sciliticum, Syrup of St. Johns-wort flowers. Conservs; of Wormwood, Mints, Betony, Red Roses vitriolated. Preservs, of China Ginger, true Acorus, Galangal, Citron Peels, Orenge peels, Nutmegs, Indian Nut, Myrobalans. Species and Pouders, Aroma∣ticum Rosatum, Diatrion pipereon, Diaxy∣loaloes, Imperial species, Stomach-pouder of Brickmannus.

II. External are, 1. Of simples, such as have been already reckoned up, and of Gums, Ladanum, Tacamahaca, Styrax calamites. 2. Of Compounds, there are besides the afore∣said, the Balsams of Peru, Camemel Romane. Oyntments, Stomach Oyntment, Martiatum magnum. Emplasters and Cataplasmes, Emplastrum Stomachle, de Crusta panis, de Baccis Lauri, de mastiche.

Point 2. Of Stomach Cooling Midica∣ments.

Cooling Stomach medicines, are also inter∣nal, and external.

I. Internal.

  • I. Of Simples, Roots of Cichory, Sorrel, Asparagus, Water-lillies. Leavs, En∣dive, Sorrel, porslane, mirtle. Flowers, of Roses, Violets, balaustians. Seeds; the four cool seeds, barley, Sorrel seeds, Rose seeds. Fruits, Citrons, Quinces, Orenges, Pomegranates, myrtle berries, medlars, Tama∣rinds, Corants, melons, and cowcombers. Woods, Sanders. Stones, Red corals.
  • II. Of Compounds, waters, of Roses, Acacia, Straw∣berries, plantane, porslane, Quinces. Juyces, such as are mentioned among cooling Heart-medicines. Syrups, of corals, Juyce of citrons, Juyce of sowr Grapes, of Quinces, of Acacia, of pomegranates, Julep of Roses and of Violets. Conservs, of Roses vitriolated, of Acacia Flo∣wers, Oak-tops, citron-flowers. Confects of Cichory Roots, Quinces, Spanish Lettuce. Diacidonium simplex. Species and Pouders, Diatrion santalon, Diarhodon Abbatis, Dia∣margariti frigidi.

II. Externals are,

  • I. Of simples, those we mentioned for inward medicaments.
  • II. Of compounds; Oyl of Roses, Violers, Quinces, Water-lillies, unripe Olives.

Article, 6. Of Epatick Medicaments.
Point. 1. Of hot Liver Medicaments.

Liver medicaments are hot or cold: and they are internal or external.

I. The Internal are, 1. Of simples; Roots, the five opening, greater and lesser; of Pimpinel, wild Radish, Squills, rhaponti∣cum verum, Rhubarb. Leaves of Agrimony, Eupatorium of Mesuae, Kunigund is her herb Mountain Chamaedrys, Centaury, water-cres∣ses, Betony, Liver-wort, Ground-pine. Flo∣wers, of Centauty, Spike, Squinanes, Elder, Liverwort, Hops. Seeds of Orenges, Citrons, Brooklime, Seseli. Fiuits, Aurenges, rei∣sons, Juniper berries. Spices, Cinnamon, Saffron, Acorus, Zedoary, Indian Spiknard, Cassia lignea. Woods, Legnum aloes, Gua∣jacum, Santalum citrinum. II. Of Com∣pounds; Spirits, of Elder, Guajacum, Worm∣wood, Centory. Waters, of the Herbs a∣foresaid. Oyls, of Sage, Orenges, Worm∣wood, Juniper berries, Mace, Nutmeges. Tinctures, Elixir proprietais, of Lignum Sas∣safras. Extract, of Gentian, Carduus, Lig∣num aloes, Wormwood, Guaiacum, Veroni∣ca, Calamus aromaticus. Syrups of Ground-Oak, Byzantinus Syrupus so called, of Hops, of Wormwood. Conservs of Chamaedrys, Sage, Wormwood, Fumitory, Rosemary Flowers. Preservs, of Acorus, Citron pees, Citrons, Pimpinel roots. Species and Pou∣ders, Diacurcumae, Dialaccae, Diaxyloasoes, Diamargariti calidi.

II. The external are,

  • I. Of Simples; those formerly alleadged.
  • II. Of Com∣pounds; Oyl of Roses, Quinces, Water lil∣lies, unripe Olives.
Ointments, Unguentum Santalinum, Refringerans Galeni, Rosatum Mesues. Plaisters, Cerotum Santalinum, Di∣aphaenicon frigidum, Emplastrum de succo Ciculae.

Article 7, Of Splenetick Medicaments
Point 1. Of hot Splenetick Medicaments.

Splenetick Medicaments are hot or cold: and both are internal and external.

I. Internal hot Medicaments are, 1. Of Simples; the Roots of Fern which is counted an appropriate medicament, of Scorzonera, of Orice of Florence, of Polipody of the Oak, of Caryophy llata, of wild Radish. Leavs, of Scolopendrium, Harts-tongue; Scurvy-grass, Tamarisk, Dodder, Hops, Fumitory, Brook-ime, Chervil, Galiopfis, Ground Oak. Flowers, of Hops, Broom, Elder, Chamae∣mel, Fumitory, Liver-wort. Seeds, of Ash, Ammios, Water-cresses, Chervil, Mustard, Nettle, wild Parsenip, Scurvy-grass. Spices, Saffron, Epithymum. Woods, of Sassafras, Lignum aloes. Barks, of Cappar Roots, middle rind of the Ash Tree, of the Elder and Tamarisk Tree. Gums of Ammoniacum dis∣solved in Vinegar of Squils. II. Of Com∣pounds; Spirits, of Wine tartarized, of Cen∣tory, of vitriol of Mars, of Tartar simple and compound, of Brook-Lime, of Scurvy-grass, of Guajacum, of Juniper berries. Waters, of Dodder, Melissa compound, Hops, Water∣cresses, Scurvy-grass, Fumitory. Tincture of Mars. Extracts, of the Spleen of Jove, Scolopendrium, Harts-Tongue, Scordium, Fumitory, polypody. Essences, of Scurvy-grass, of Epythymum, of Chamaedrys, Fumi∣tory, Dodder, Cappars. Syrups of Scolo∣pendrium Fernelii, of Broom Flowers, of Epithimum, of Scurvy-grass of Apples, Fo∣restus his Syrup against the scurvy. Con∣servs, of scurvy-grass, scolopendria, broom-flowers, Fumitory, Veronica, Ground-Oak, Pimpinel. Species, of Dialacca, Diacurcuma, Dicapparum of Hollerius, Tartarus Vitrio∣latus.

II. External medicaments are,

  • I. Of sim∣ples, those already reckoned, and of Gums, Ladanum, Tacamahaca, styrax.
  • II. Of compounds, besides the forementioned, there are Balsams, of Peru, of Romane Chamaemel, of Mastich. Ʋnguents, Unguentum stoma∣chale, Martiatum magnum.
Plaisters and Cataplasmes, Emplastrum stomachale, de Crusta panis, de Baccis Lauri, de Mastichae.

Point 2. Of cooling Stomach-medica∣ments.

Also cooling stomach medicaments, are ei∣ther internal or external.

I. The Internal, are,

  • I. Of Simples; the Roots of Cychory, sorrel, Asparagus, water-lillies. Leavs, al sorts of Endive, sorrel, porslane, myrtle. Flowers, of Roses, Vio∣lets, Balaustians. Seeds, the four greater cool seeds, barley, sorrel, and Rose seeds. Fruits, Citrons, Quinces, Orenges, Pomegranates, myrtils, medlars, Tamarinds, red and white corants, melons, cucumbers. Woods, san∣ders. Stones, red-coral.
  • II. Of compounds, waters of Roses, Acacia, strawberries, Plan∣tane, porslane Quinces. Juyces, those which have been mentioned among the cooling Heart Medicaments. Syrups, of corals, Juyce of citrons, sour Grapes, Quinces, Acacia, Pome∣granates, Julep of Roses, and Violets. Con∣servs of Roses Vitriolated, Flowers of Acacia, Tops of Oak, citron flowers. Preservs, of Cichory roots, of Quinces, of Spanish Lettuce, Diacydonium simplex. Species and pouders, Diatrion santalon, Diarrhodon Abbatis, Di∣amargaritum frigidum.

II. External are,

  • I. Of simples, those already reckoned among the internal medica∣ments.
  • II. Of compounds, oyl of Roses, vio∣lets, Quinces, of unripe Olives.

Article, 6. Of Liver-medicaments.
Point, I. Of Heating Liver medicaments.

Liver medicaments are heating or cooling. And the former are internal or external.

I. The Internal are, 1. Of simples; Roots, The five opening roots greater & lesses, roots of pim∣pinel, wild-redish, squil, Rhapontick, Rhu∣barb. Leaves, of Agrimony, of Eupatorium of Mesue, of true mountaine groud oake, Centory the less, Water-Cresses, Betony, Liver wort, ground pine, Flowers of Centory the less, spicknard, Squinanth, Elder, Liver-wort, Hops▪ Seeds of orenges, Citrons, Brooklime, Seeli. Fruits, Orenges, Ray∣sons, Juniper berries. Spices, Cinnamon, Safron, Acorus, Zedoary, Indian spike, Cassia∣lignia. Woods; Lignum Aloes, Guajacum, Santalum citrinum. 2. Of compounds; the Spirit of Elder berries, Guajacum, worm∣wood, Centory the less. Waters, distilled of the foresaid Herbes. Oyles of sage, O∣renge-peels, wormwood, Juniper, Mace, Nut∣megs. Tinctures, Elixir proprietatis, of Lignum Sassafras. Extracts, of Gentian, Carduus, Lignumaloes, Wormwood, Gua∣jacum, Veronica, Calamus aromaticus. Sy∣rups of Ground oake, Byzantinus, Hops, wormwood. Conserves, of Ground-oake, Sage, Wormwood, Fumitory, . Rosemary Flowers. Preserves, of Acorus, Orenge-peeles, Citron peeles, Citron pap, pim∣pinel rootes. Species and po••ders, Diacur∣cuma, Dialacca, Diaxuloaloes, Diamargari∣tum calidum.

II. The Eternal are, I. Of simples, those before specified, of which decoctions, Bags, and fomentations, may be made. Ointments, are Unguentum Nardinum, Martiatum. Pla∣sters, Diaphaenicon calidum, de Baccis Lau∣ri, Oxycroceum.

Point, 2. Of Liver-coolers.

Liver coolers are either internal or exter∣nal. 

I. The internal are,

  • I. Of Simples; Roots of Aspragus, Grass, Water lilies, Strawberry, Sorrel, Cichory, Leaves, of Sorrel, Straw∣berry, Asparagus. Sowthistle, Garden En∣dive, porslane, Lettice, Water lillie. Flo∣wers; of Roses, Cichory, Bugloss, Balau∣stians, Water Lillies, Acacia, red-poppy. Seeds, the four great and smal coole seeds, bar∣ley, white popy, violets. Fruites, Pome∣granates, &c. which we have reckoned among stomach-coolers. See Gums and precious stones in the same place. From Animals, shavings of Harts hone and Ivory, whey of Goates-milk.
  • II. Of compounds, Spirit of Vitriol, a••• spirit of Sulphur, of salt. Di∣stilled waters, of Cichory, Sorrel, Water Lillies, Strawberries. Syrups, of the juyce of Cichory, Endive, Sorrel, wood-sorrel, juyce of Citrons, and the rest reckoned among cool∣ing stomach medicines. Conserves, Preser∣ves, and species, see in the same place.

II. External are, I. Of simples, the same fore-cited. II. Of compounds; Oiles of Roses, Quinces, Water Lillies, unripe olive. Ointments, of Sanders, cooling Ointment of Galen, Unguentum rosatum of Mesue. Em∣plasters, Cerotum santalinum, Diaphenicon frig•••〈◊〉 plaster of the juice of Hemlock.

Article, 7. Of Splenetick Medicaments.
Point, 1. Of warming spleen medica∣ments.

Spleen medicaments are, either heating or cooling, each of them internal or external.

I. The internal Heating are,

  • I. Of sim∣ples; Roots, of Ferne, which are appropri∣ate, of Scorzonera, of Florentine orice, of po∣lypody of the Oake, of Avens, of wild radish. Leaves, of true scolopendrium, Harts-tongue, Scurvygrass, Tamarisk, Dodder, Hops, Fu∣mitory, Brooklime, Chervil, Galiposis, ground oake. Flowers, of Hops, Broome, Elder, Fumitory, Liver-wort. Seeds, of Ash, bi∣shops-weed, Watercresses, Chervil, mustard, Nettle, wild parsnip, Scurvy grass. Spices, Safron, Epithymum. Woods, Sassafrs, Xy∣loaloes. Barks, of capar roots, middle rind of ash-roots, Elder roots, Tamarisk roots. Gum Amoniacum dissolved in Vine∣gar of squils.
  • II. Of compounds; Spirits of wine tartarized, of Centaury, of vitriol, of Mars, of Tartar simple and compound, of wa∣tercresses, of Scurvy grass, of Guajacum, of ju∣niper berries. Waters, of Dodder, of barm compound, of Hops, of Water-cresses, of Scur∣vy-grass, of Fumitory. Tinctures of Mars. Extracts, of Joves Spleen, Scolopendrium, Harts-tongue, Scordium, Fumitory, Poly∣pody. Essences of Scurvy-grass, Epithymun Ground-oake, Fumitory, Dodder, Capa•••Syrupps, of Ceterach or Scolopendrium or Fernelus, of Epithymum, of Scurvy-grass, of Apples, the Scotbutick Syrup of Forestus. Conserves, of Scurvy grass, of Ceterach, of Broom-flowers, of Fumitory, of Fluellen, of Chamaedrys, Pimpinel. Species, of Dialacca, Diacurcuma, Diacapparum of Hollerius, Tartarus Vitriolatus.

II. External are,

  • I. Of simples, those before mentioned.
  • II. Of compounds, Oyls, of Capars, Orice, Cheiri, Rue, Peach kernels, Almonds, Scorpions.
Ointments, of dialthea, Martiatum, de Arthanita, de Am∣moniaco, Spleneticum. Emplasters, of Melilote, diachylum ireatum, Emolliens Foresti, diasulphuris Rulandi.

Point, 3. Of cooling Spleen-Medicaments

Cooling Spleen Medicaments, are inter∣nal or external.

I. The internal are,

  • I. Of simples. Roots, Of Cichory-like plants, and of which men∣tion is made, among liver Medicines. Leaves, Flowers, Fruites, Seeds, may be also fetcht from thence. To these you may ad the barks of willow roots.
  • II. Of compounds, are the same likewise, to which you may ad me∣dicaments prepared of tartar and of steel. Trochisks of Sanders, spodium, Carabe, Bar∣berries.

II. The external are,

  • I. Of simples; Roots, of Mandrake. Leaves of white hen∣bane, Hemlock, Willow, Water-lillies.
  • II. Of compounds, see those reckoned among cooling Liver-Remedies.

Article, 8. Of Nephritick Medicaments.
Point, 1. Of heating Nephriticks, or kid∣ny remedies.

Nephritick Medicaments are either heat∣ing or cooling, both are internal or exter∣nal.

I. Internal heaters are,

  • I. Of Simples; Roots of restharrow, Saxifrage, Filipendula, Pimpinel, Lycoris; Marsh-mallow, Polypo∣dy, Lovage. Leaves of maiden haire, Wal∣rue, Fluellen, Chervil, Nettle, ground-ivy, Pellitory of the wal, Feverfew, Restharow.  Flowers; of Broome, Spike, Elder, Betony, the yellow of violets, St. Johns-wort flowers. Seeds, the four greater and lesser hot seeds, persly, gromwel, Saxifrage, Cherry-stone-kernels, Peach-stone-kernels, Oake of Jeru∣••lem, Beanes. Fruits, Juniper berries, Ivy-berries, winter-cherries, bitter Almonds, Sweet-briar berries, Corants. Spices, Cas∣sia lignea, Spica, Indica, Safron. Woods, Lignum Sanctum, Nephriticum, Tamarisk. Gums, Terpentine, Myrrh, Mastich, Oliba∣num. Minerals, Lapis judaicus, Lapis Ne∣phriticus. From animals, the stones of Perches, Crabs-eyes, Earth-wormes, Eggs∣shels, Jawes of a Pike.
  • II. Of compounds, spirit of salt, Terpentine, Elder berries, Straw∣berries, Cherties, Vitriol, Feverfew. Distil∣led Waters, of Rest-harrow, saxifrage, Per∣sley, Hedera terrestris, Alkekengy, Matri∣caria, Elder flowers. Oyls of Orenges, Ju∣niper, peach-kernels, cherries, bitter almonds. Tinctures, Elixir proprietatis, of Ambar. Ex∣tracts, of veronica, Ground-ivy, Lycorice. Syrups, of Maiden hair of Fernelius, Byzan∣rinus so called, of dialthea, Oxymel. Con∣serves, of Hedera terristris, veronica, Sweet briar-berry. Spices and pounders, Lithon∣tripticon, Tartarus Vitriolatus, Restharrow-Salt, salt of Beane ham, chervil, Nettles.

II. External are,

  • I. Of simples, such as were before aleadged.
  • II. Of compounds, Oiles, of scorpions, white lillyes. Ointments, Martiatum, Agrippae, Aregon, dialthea. Em∣plasters, diachylon simple, Oxycroceum, Me∣lilote.

Point, 2. Of cooling Nephriticks.

Cooling Nephritcks are internal, or exter∣nal.

I. Internal are,

  • I. Of simples, Roots of Grass, Strawberries, Water-Lillies. Leaves of Porslane, Willow, Venus Basin, Hearts-ease, Lettuce. Flowers, of Water Lillies, Violets, Roses, Beanes. Seeds, the fouer cold, white poppy seed, seed of purple violets. Fruits, see among the stomach and liver coo∣lers. Stones, Christal.
  • II, Of compounds, Waters of Strawberries, Violets, barly, por∣slane, Lettuce. Juyces, of Citrons, Straw∣berries, porslane. Syrups, of Water Lillies, Strawberries, porslane, syrup of the juyce of Cirrons. Conerves, of Acacia, violets, porslane.

II. External are the same, to which ad of the compounds, Oyls of Roses, water lillies, sugar of Lead. Ʋnguents; The Ointment of Roses of Mesue, Galens cooling Ointment.

Article, IX. Of Ʋterine Medicaments.
Point, I. Of heating Ʋterine or Womb-Medicaments.

Ʋterine Medicaments are either Heating or Cooling, and they are internal or exter∣nal.

I. The internal are,

  • I. Of simples, Roots, of Peony, Valerian, Laserpitium, Angelica, Pimpinella, Bryony, Aristolochia rotunda. Leaves, of Mugwort, Rue, round Birth∣wort, Mercury, Fever-few, Sabine, Betony. Flowers, of Betony, Chery, Elder, St. Johns-wort, Stechados, spikenard. Seeds, foure hot, mountaine osier, red vetched, Rose∣mary, peony. Fruits, Indian Nut, Juni∣per Berries, Orenges. Spices, Cinnamon, Cassia lignea, Nutmegs, Cubebs, Graines of Paradise, Safron. Woods, Lignum aloes, Ash, Guajacum. From Animals, Castoreum.
  • II. Of compounds, Waters, of Mugwort, Hysop, Elder, Cinnamon, Zedoary, yellow stock-gillo flowers, betony with wine. Oyls, of Cinnamon, Angellica, Ambar, Cloves. Tinctures, the Uterine Elixir of Crollius, omitting salt of mother of perle. Extracts; Hystericum majus and minus of Querceta∣nus, of the Liver and Splene of an Oxe, of Baume, of Lignum Aloes. Syrups, of Mug∣wort, Feverfew, Orenges, Baume, Cinnamon. Conserves of Marjerom, Betony, Baum, Rose-mary, Mary golds. Preserves, of Acorus, ci∣tron peeles, Orenges, Nutmegs, Zedoary. Pou∣ders, Diacalamint, Diaxyloaloes, diacinna∣momum.

II. External are,

  • I. Of simples, the grea∣test part of the foresaid, to which may be ad∣ded, Gum Olibanum, storax, bdellium, myrrh, Ladanum, Assafetida, Galbanum, Opopanax, Sagapenum, Ambar. From Animals, Cas∣toreum, civet, Musk.
  • II. Of compounds, Oyls, of cheiri, Angelica, Rue, Castoreum, Nard oile, Scorpions, Nutmegs. Ʋnguents, of Bay-berries, Gum Caranns, ceratum ma∣tricale, or of Galbanum, &c.

Point, 2, Of wombe-cooling Medica∣ments.

Wombe cooling medicaments are also either internal or external.

I. The Internal are,

  • I. Of simples, Roots, of bistort, comsery. Leaves, of Strawberry, Shepherds-pouch, Vinca pervinca. Plantane, Oake, great comfry, Porslane, Nettles, loose∣strife. Flowers, of Roses, Quinces, Balau∣stians, Water-Lillies, Loose-strife, St. Johns wort, Comfery, Willow. Seeds, of porse∣lane, Plantane, Henbane, white-poppy. Fruits, of Acacia, Pomegranates, Medlers, Myrtils. Woods, Sanders. Gums, Dra∣gons-blood. Earths and miniralls, Bole Armeniack, Red corralls, Perls, Christial.
  • II. Of compounds, they are such as are made of the foregoing simples, and may be known by what has been already said.

II. The external are the same we alleadged in the simples. The compounds have been for the most part declared, in the Nephriticks and Hepaticks.

Chap. 7. Of vegetable Medi∣caments, referred to the seven Planets.

Planetarie Medicaments are they, which according to the opinions of some Men, have received their virtues and names from the Planets, and depend upon them in their ope∣rations.

They are as manifold as there are planets, viz. Saturnine, Jovial, Martial, Solary, Ve∣nereal, Mercurial, Lunary.

I. Those are termed Saturnine which are of an horrid aspect, ingrateful or venemous smel, stiptick tast, leane shape: and they grow in moist places, filthy and woody, solitary, and dark; and of this kind are woolfs-bane, Agnus castus, Calves-head, Smallage, Finger-fern, Star-wort, orach, Blites, Shephards pouch, Hemp, Cappars, Hemlocks, Cumin, Cy∣press, dodder, Epithymum, Horse-taile, Fern, Fumitory, Hellebore, Henbane, Great dock, lupines, Mandrakes, Moss, Opium, pine, Polypo∣dy, Sloetree, Rue, Willow, Cetrach, Scro∣phulary, Sena, Serpentaria, sesely, Night∣shade, Tamarisk, Eugh, Vervaine.

II. Jovial are such as have a pleasant tast and smel, red or blewish flower, an olive substance, plaine leaves, and delighting in fat places: such are Cloves, Cherries, strawber∣ries, Olive-trees, Betony, Flaxe, centaury, Barberyes, Red corants, Avens, Arsmart, Fumitory, Teucrium, Mullin, Comfery, Galangal, Birch, Ground oake, Almonds, Madder, Prunella, Rhubarb, Loose-strife, Borrage, Bugloss, Mulberries, wheat, Tho∣row waxe, Sophia, Pomegranates, Violets, Coral.

III. Martial are of a pointed rough shape, of a caustick tast, a color tending to redness, & they love dry places, such as are Nettles, Thi∣stles, Restharrow, Esula, Rhamnus, bramble, Flammula, Onions, Leeks, Garlick, Radish, Peperwort, Wolfes-bane, Henbane, Arsmart Asparagus, basilicon, &c.

IV. Solar, are of a regal forme, of colour yellow or orenge tawny, of fragrant smel, plea∣sing tast, and love sunny and meridional situa∣tions, Such as are: the Flower of the Sun, Safron, Celondine, Baum, Motherwort, Grom∣wel, Rosa solis, lillies, Gentian, laurel vine, Elecompane, St. Johns wort, Ashe, Mary∣gold, Gold-flowers, Rosemary, Mints, Ci∣tronwort, and some others.

V. Venerial are such as have a white flo∣wer, a clammy humor, a sweet tast, a wan∣ton smel, shape of leaves smooth not jagged: Such as are Satyrium, Vulgar pease, boletus cervinus, Cuckow-pintel, pine and oake-apple, Parsnips, Water Lillies, Daffodillies &c.

VI. Mercurial are, such, as have a vari∣ous color of the flowers, bear cods, and are bred for the most part in a sandy place; such as are, Beanes, Chamemel, Trefoil, daisies, juniper, Wallnuts, Hasils, Elders, Dragons, Mony wort, Lungwort, Anise, Cubebs, Mar∣jerom.

VII. Lunary, are such as have thick juy∣cie leaves, of a watry or sweetish tast, they soone grow to their just magnitude, and love marrish watry places; Such as are, Coleworts, Gourds, Melons, Pepons, Mandrakes, Pa∣paver erraticum or Red poppy, Lettuce, Rapes linden tree, Duckweed, &c. See hereof Etzlerus in his I sagoge-Physico-magico-me∣dica, and Helvicus, Dietericus de Novo or∣be; also Toxita his Cornu salutis, and Carrichterus de plantis. Also in Turniserus. you shal find many things.


The idea of practical physick in twelve books ... Jonstonus, Joannes, 1603-1675., Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654., W. R. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A46235.0001.001/1:10?ALLSELECTED=1;c=eebo;c=eebo2;g=eebogroup;rgn=div1;singlegenre=All;sort=occur;subview=detail;type=simple;view=fulltext;xc=1;q1=Trochiscks

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