THe foure greater hotte seedes, annisséede, fennell séede, comin séede, and carrowaies.

THe foure greater hotte seedes, annisséede, fennell séede, comin séede, and carrowaies.

Caveat: The information provided is for historical knowledge only. These pages were created by a student of natural medicines and are provided as a comparative between modern usage and medieval usage. Do not gather or use wild plants/herbs if you cannot positively identify them and never use them without first consulting a physician.

Translation: The four greater hot seeds, anise seed, fennel seed, cumin seed and caroway.

A nievve herball, or historie of plantes wherin is contayned the vvhole discourse and perfect description of all sortes of herbes and plantes: their diuers [and] sundry kindes: their straunge figures, fashions, and shapes: their names, natures, operations, and vertues: and that not onely of those whiche are here growyng in this our countrie of Englande, but of all others also of forrayne realmes, commonly vsed in physicke. First set foorth in the Doutche or Almaigne tongue, by that learned D. Rembert Dodoens, physition to the Emperour: and nowe first translated out of French into English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer.

Dodoens, Rembert, 1517-1585., Lyte, Henry, 1529?-1607

At London [i.e. Antwerp: Printed by Henry Loë, sold] by my Gerard Dewes, dwelling in Pawles Churchyarde at the signe of the Swanne, 1578.

Of Anyse. Chap. xci.

The Description.

ANise hath leaues like to yong Persley, that is new sprong vp: his stalkes be rounde and hol∣low, his leaues at the first springing vp, are somewhat round, but afterwarde it hath other leaues cut and clouen like to the leaues of Persley, but a great deale smaller & whiter. At the toppe of the stalkes groweth diuers faire tuftes, or spokie rundels with white floures, like to the tuftes of the smal Saxifrage, or of Coriandre. After the floures are past, there cōmeth vp seede, which is whitish, and in smell and taste, sweete and pleasant.

The Place.

Anise groweth naturally in Syria, & Candie. Now one may find good store sowen in the gardens of Flaū∣ders, and Englande.

The Tyme.

It floureth in Iune, and Iuly.

The Names.

Anise is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine and in Shoppes Anisum: in Italian Semenze de Anisi▪ in Spanish Matahalua, yerua doce. in high Douch Anisz: in base Almaigne Anijs.

The Nature.

The Anise seede, the whiche onely is vsed in Medi∣cine, is hoate and dry in the thirde degree.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] Anise seede dissolueth the windinesse, and is good a∣gainst belching, and vpbreaking and blasting of the stomacke and bowels: it swageth the paynes and griping torment of the belly: it stoppeth the laske: it causeth one to pisse, and to auoyde the stone, if it be taken dry, or with wine or water: and it remoueth the hicquet or yeox, not onely whan it is dronken and receyued inwardly, but also with the onely smell, and sauour.

[ B] It cureth the blouddie flixe, and stoppeth the white issue of wemen, and it is very profitably giuen to such as haue the dropsie: for it openeth the pypes and conduits of the Liuer, and stancheth thirst.

[ C] Annise seede plentifully eaten, stirreth vp fleshly lust, and causeth wemen to haue plenty of Milke.

[ D] The seede chewed in the mouth, maketh a sweete mouth, and easie breath, & amendeth the stench of the mouth.

[ E] The same dried by the fier, and taken with Hony, clenseth the breast from flegmatique superfluities, and if one put therevnto bitter Amandes, it cureth the olde Cough.

[ F] The same dronken with wine, is very good against al poyson, and the sting∣ing of Scorpions, and biting of all other venimous beastes.

[ G] It is singuler to be giuen to infants or yong children to eate, that be in dan∣ger to haue the falling sicknesse, so that such as do but only hold it in their hāds (as saith Pythagoras) shall be no more in perill to fall into that euill.

[ H] It swageth the squināce, that is to say, the swelling of the throte, to be gar∣gled with Hony, Vineger and Hyssope.

[ I] The seede thereof bounde in a little bagge or handecarcheff, and kept at the Nose to smell vnto, keepeth men from dreaming, and starting in their sleepe, & causeth them to rest quietly.

[ K] The perfume of it, taken vp into the Nose, cureth head ache.

[ L] The same pounde with oyle of Roses, and put into the eares, cureth the in∣warde hurtes, or woundes of the same.

Of Fenell. Chap. lxxxix.

❀ The Kyndes.

THere are two sortes of Fenell. The one is the right Fenell called in Greke Marathron. The other is that which groweth very high, and is called Hip∣pomarathron, that is to say, great Fenell.

❀ The Description.

[ 1] THe right Fenell hath round knot∣tie stalkes, as long as a man, and full of branches the sayde stalkes are greene without & hollow within, filled with a certaine white pithe or light pulpe. The leaues are long and tender, and very much, and small cut (so that they seeme but as a tuffte or bushe of small threedes, yet greater and gentler, and of better sauour than the leaues of Dill. The floures be of pale yellow colour, and do growe in spokie tuffets or rundels at the top of the stalkes: the floure perisshed it turneth into long seedes, alwayes two growing togither. The roote is white, long, and single.

There is an other sorte of this kinde of Fenell, whose leaues waxe darke, with a certayne kinde of thicke or tawny redde co∣lour, but otherwise in all things like the first.

[ 2] The other kinde called the great Fenell hath round stemmes with knees & ioynts, sometimes as great as ones arme, and of sixtene or eightene foote long, as writeth the learned Ruellius.

❀ The Place.

Fenell groweth in this countrie in gardens.

❀ The Tyme.

It floureth in Iune and Iuly, and the seede is ripe in August.

❀ The Names.

[ 1] The first kynde is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: and of Actuarius〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine and in Shoppes Foeniculum: in Englishe Fenell: in Italian Finochio: in Spanish Finicho: in French Fenoil: in high Douch Fenchel: in base Almaigne Venckel.

[ 2] The seconde kinde is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine Foeniculum erraticum, that is to say, wilde Fenell, and great Fenell: and of some Fenell Giant.

❀ The Nature.

Fenell is hoate in the thirde degree, and dry in the first.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] The greene leaues of Fenell eaten, or the seede thereof dronken with Pti∣san, filleth wemens breastes or dugges with milke.

[ B] The decoction of the crops of Fenel drōken, easeth the payne of the kidneys, causeth one to make water, & to auoyde the stone, & bringeth downe ye floures. The roote doth the like, the which is not only good for the intentes aforesayd, but also against the Dropsie to be boyled in wine and dronken.

[ C] The leaues and seede of Fenell dronken with wine, is good agaynst the stingings of Scorpions and the bitings of other wicked & venimous beastes.

[ D] Fenell or the seede dronken with water, asswageth the payne of ye stomacke, and the wambling or desire to vomite, which such haue, as haue the Ague.

[ E] The herbe, the seede and the roote of Fenell, are very good for the Lunges, the Liuer and the kidneys, for it openeth the obstructions or stoppings of those partes, and comforteth them.

[ F] The rootes pounde and layde too with honie, are good against the bytings of madde Dogges.

[ G] The leaues pounde with vineger are good to be layde to the disease called the wilde fire, and all hoate swellings, and if they be stamped togither with waxe, it is good to be layde to bruses and stripes that are blacke and blewe.

[ H] Fenell boyled in wine, or pounde with oyle is very good for the yearde, or secrete parte of man, to be eyther bathed or stued, or rubbed and anoynted with the same.

[ I] The iuyce of Fenell dropped into the eares, killeth the wormes breeding in the same. And the sayde iuyce dryed in the Sunne, is good to be put into Col∣lyres, and medicines prepared to quicken the sight.

Of Comijn. Chap. xciiij.

❀ The Kyndes.

Comyn, as Dioscorides writeth, is of two sortes, tame and wilde.

Cuminum satiuum. Garden Comyn.
Cuminum syluestre. Wilde Comyn.

❧ The Description.

[ 1] THe Garden Comyn hath a streight stem, with diuers branches: the leaues be all iagged and as it were thredes not much vnlike Fenell. The floures grow in rundels or spokie toppes, like to the toppes of Anyse, Fenell, and Dill. The seede is browne and long.

[ 2] The wilde Comyn (as Dioscorides saith) hath a brittle stalke, of a span lōg, vpon whiche groweth foure or fiue leaues all iagged & snipt, or dented rounde about, and it is not yet knowen. 

The other wilde kinde whereof Dioscorides writeth shalbe hereafter descri∣bed in the lxxxvj. Chapter amongst the Nygelles, or Larke spurres.

❀ The Place.

The garden Comyn groweth in Ethiopia, Egypte, Galatia, the lesser Asia, Cilicia, and Terentina. They do also sowe it in certayne places of Almaigne, but it desireth a warme and moyst grounde.

❀ The Names.

[ 1] The common & garden Comyn is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine Cuminum satiuum: in Shoppes Cyminum: in English Comyn or Comijn: in Italian Cimino: in Spanish Cominos, Cominhos: in French Comyn: in high Douch Romische Kummel, and zamer Kummel: in Brabante Comijn.

[ 2] The wilde Comyn is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine Syluestre Cu∣minum, and Cuminum rusticum.

❀ The Nature.

The seede of Comyn is hoate and dry in the thirde degree.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] Comyn scattereth and breaketh all the windinesse of the stomacke, the bel∣ly, the bowels and Matrix: also it is singuler against the griping torment, and knawings or frettings of the belly, not onely to be receyued at the mouth, but also to be powred into the bodie by clysters, or to be layde to outwardly with Barley meale.

[ B] The same eaten or dronken is very profitable for suche as haue the Cough, and haue taken colde, and for those whose breastes are charged or stopped: and if it be dronken with wine, it is good for them that are hurte with any veni∣mous beastes.

[ C] It slaketh and dissolueth the blastings and swellings of the Coddes and Genitors being layde therevpon.

[ D] The same mengled with Yuray meale, and poulpe or substance of raysins, stoppeth the inordinate course of the floures, being applied to the belly in forme of a playster.

[ E] Comyn seede pounde, and giuen to smell vnto with vineger, stoppeth the bleeding at the Nose.

❀ The Daunger.

Comyn being to much vsed, decayeth the naturall complexion and liuely co∣lour, causing one to looke wanne and paale.

Of Caruwayes. Chap. xciij.

❀ The Description.

CAruway hath a hollow, straked or crested stalke, with many knots or ioynts, the leafe is ve∣ry like to Carot leaues. The floures are white, and grow in tuffets or rundels, bearing a small seede, and sharpe vpon the tongue. The roote is meetely thicke, long and yellow, in taste almoste like vnto the Carot.

❀ The Place.

Caruway groweth in Caria, as Di∣oscorides writeth. Now there is of it to be found in certayne dry medowes of Al∣maigne. In this countrie it is sowen in gardens.

❀ The Tyme.

It floureth in May, a yeare after the sowing thereof, and deliuereth his seede in Iune and Iuly.

❀ The Names.

This herbe is called in Greeke 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: in Latine Careum or Carum: in Shops and in Italian Carui: and it tooke his name of the coūtrie of Caria, whereas it groweth plentifully: in English it is cal∣led Caruway, and the seede Caruway seede: in French Carui, or Carotes: in Spa∣nishe Alcaranea, Alcoronia: in high Douche Weisz Kummel: in base Almaigne Witte Comijn.

❀ The Nature.

Caruway seede is hoate and dry in the thirde degree.

❀ The Vertues.

[ A] The Caruway seede, is very good and conuenient for the stomacke, and for the mouth, it helpeth digestion, and prouoketh vrine, and it swageth and dissol∣ueth all kinde of windinesse and blastings of the inwardes partes. And to con∣clude, it is answereable to Annis seede in operation and vertue.

[ B] The rootes of Caruway boyled, are good to be eaten like Carottes.

The names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche [and] Frenche with the commune names that herbaries and apotecaries vse. Gathered by William Turner.

Turner, William, d. 1568.

[Imprinted at London: By [S. Mierdman for] John Day and Wyllyam Seres, dwellynge in Sepulchres Parish at the signe of the Resurrection a litle aboue Holbourne Conduite, [1548]]


Anisum is called in greke anison, in En∣glishe anise, the anise whiche we vse nowe adayes is not so hote as Galen sayeth that his anise is, for he sayeth that anise is hote and dry in the thirde degree.


Feniculum is called in greke Marathrō, in english Fenel or fenkel, in duch Fenchel, in french Fenoul. Fenel is hote in the thyrd degree and dry in the fyrst. Feuel groweth in gardines in al countreis.


Cuminum is called in greeke Cyminon in englishe cummyn, in duche cummich or cumyn, in frenche cumyne. Cumine is hote in the thyrd degree, it groweth in Candy, I haue not sene it in Englande.


Careum called also Carium, and in greeke Karos, is called in englishe Carruwayes, in high duch Weisz kymmer, in lowe duch Hoffe cumyn, in frenche Carni, the potica∣ries cal it also Carni, it is almoste hote and dry in the thyrde degree.