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Baronial 12th Night - To Make Muscadines, Commonly called Kissing Comfits

To Make Muscadines, Commonly called Kissing Comfits, Delightfull daily exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen, 1621 - Take halfe a pound of double refined Sugar beaten and cearsed [sieved], put into the beating thereof, two graines of Muske, 3 grains of ambergreese, & a dram of orris powder: beat all these together with gum Dragogon steeped in damaske-rose-water, in an aliblaster [marble] mortar to a perfect paste, then slicke a sheete of white paper, slicked with a slick-stone very smooth, and rowle your sugar pate upon it, then cut it like lozenges with a rowel, & so dry them upon a stone, and when they bee dry they will serve to garnish a marchpaine, or other dishes, tarts, custards, or whatsoever else, if you will have any red you must mingle it with Rosa Paris, if blew, with blew bottles growing in the corne. Kissing Comfits 3 tablespoons rose water 1 teaspoon gum arabic powder 3 eyedropper drops essence of ambergris 2 eyedropper drops essence of musk 4 cups confectioners su

Baronial 12th Night - To make Manus Christi - A Closet for Ladies and Gentlevvomen, 1602

To make Manus Christi - A Closet for Ladies and Gentlevvomen, 1602 To make Manus Christi - Take halfe a pound of refined Suger, and some Rose water, and boyle them together, till it come to sugar again, then stirre it about while it be somewhat cold, then take your leaf gould, and mingle with it, then cast it according to art, That is in round gobbetts, and so keep them. Manus Christi 2 cups sugar 2 tbsp. rosewater 1/4 cup water Opt. Edible gold (I used stars for this event), food color (I used Wilton's pink), pearl luster dust Place sugar, rosewater and water into a pan and allow the sugar to dissolve over low heat. Add a bit more water or rosewater if the sugar seems to dry and will not dissolve into a syrup. Heat till syrup reaches 230 degrees, remove pan from heat immediately, stir in gold or pearl luster dust, add food color if you wish and using a fork, whisk your hot sugar syrup until it starts to cool and becomes opaque in color. At this point, you can drop it by spoon

Baronial 12th Night - How to cover all kinds of Seeds, or little pieces of Spices, or Orange or Limon Pill, with Sugar for Comfits. The queen-like closet (1670)

How to cover all kinds of Seeds, or little pieces of Spices, or Orange or Limon Pill, with Sugar for Comfits. The queen-like closet (1670) Thomas Dawson lists comfets (comfits) as one of the "necessaries appertaining to a banquet". How to cover all kinds of Seeds, or little pieces of Spices, or Orange or Limon Pill, with Sugar for Comfits. First of all you must have a deep bottomed Basin of Brass or Latin, with two ears of Iron to hang it with two Cords over some hot Coals. You must also have a broad Pan to put Ashes in, and hot Coals upon them. You must have a Brass Ladle to let run the Sugar upon the Seeds. You must have a Slice of Brass to scrape away the Sugar from the sides of the hanging Basin if need be. Having all these things in readiness, do as followeth; Take fine white Sugar beaten, and let your Seeds and Spice be dry, then dry them again in your hanging Basin: Take to every two pounds of Sugar one quarter of a pound of Spices or Seeds, or such like. If it be Anis

Baronial 12th Night - Fig, Walnut and Candied Ginger Fruit Paste

Fig, Walnut and Candied Ginger (a rift of Rapeye--I claim cooks perogative) I took several liberties with this recipe in order to accommodate allergies. First, the fruit was not cooked in wine, secondly I did not use pine nuts, apples were substituted for currants in order to get pectin and make the paste set up, and lastly, I added candied ginger in place of the other spices. It is in fact almost a completely different recipe then the original, but the method is the same. 4 granny smith apples, cored and sliced 1 tbsp. lemon juice 3 cups sugar 1 1/2-2 cups finely chopped dried figs 2-3 tbsp. candied ginger sliced into small slivers 1 cup Place cored apples and figs into a pot and add water. Bring to a boil and cook until the fruit is very tender and starting to fall apart. Place your fruit into a food processor and process until it forms a very smooth puree. Do not strain your fruit before returning it to the pan. Add your sugar and heat on low until the sugar has melted. Inc

Baronial 12th Night - To make Marmalade of Damsins or Prunes, The treasurie of commodius conceits (1573)

To make Marmalade of Damsins or Prunes, The treasurie of commodius conceits (1573) - TAke Damsins, which ar ripe, boyle them on the Fyre with a lyttle fayre water tyll they bee softe, then draw them through a course Boulter as ye make a tart set it on the Fyre agayne seeth iton height with sufficient sugar, as you do your Quinces, dash it with sweete water. &c. and box it. If you wil make it of Prunes, euen likewise doo put some Apples also to it, as you dyd to your Quinces. This wise you may make Marmylade of Wardens, Peares, apples, & Medlars, Seruits or Checkers, strawberys euery one by him selfe, or els mixt it together, as you thik good. Partridge, John., The treasurie of commodius conceits (1573) Plum Paste 2 pounds plums, quartered with core removed 2 cups water 2 pounds sugar Place stoned and quartered unpeeled plums into a pot, and bring to a boil. Simmer until the plums are very tender and starting to break apart. Put your plums into a blender and blend until they

Baronial 12th Night - To Make Candied Orange Peel, Le Menagier de Paris, 1393 and To candy any roote, fruite or flower - English Housewife, 1615

To Make Candied Orange Peel, Le Menagier de Paris, 1393 To Make Candied Orange Peel, divide the peel of one orange into five quarters and scrape with a knife to remove the white part inside, then put them to soak in good sweet water for nine days, and change the water every day; then cook them in good water just till boiling, and when this happens, spread them on a cloth and let them get thoroughly dry, then put them in a pot with enough honey to cover them, and boil on a low fire and skim, and when you believe the honey is cooked, (to test if it is cooked, have some water in a bowl, and let drip into this one drop of the honey, and if it spreads, it is not cooked; and if the drop of honey holds together in the water without spreading out, it is cooked;) and then you must remove your orange peel, and make one layer with it, and sprinkle with ginger powder, then another layer, and sprinkle etc., and so on; and leave it a month or more, then eat. Candied Orange Peel (easy method) Orange

Baronial 12th Night - Coriander Flavored Marzipan -A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen, 1621

Coriander Flavored Marzipan -A Daily Exercise for Ladies and Gentlewomen, 1621 To Make Callishones - Take halfe a pound of Marchpane paste, a thimble-full of coriander seeds beaten to a powder, with a graine of Muske, beat all to a perfect paste, print it and drie it. Recipe 10 ounces almond paste 1 1/2 tsp. ground coriander up to 1/2 cup confectioner sugar 1 tsp. rosewater This works best if the almond paste is cold, so I put mine in the refrigerator overnight. I grated it into a bowl and added 1/2 tsp. ground coriander to the grated paste. I then added the remainder of the coriander to the sugar, and put a small handful of it onto a piece of wax paper. I took 1/3 of my almond paste and pressed it on both sides into the sugar/coriander mixture. I rolled it out to approximately 1/4" thick and cut it out with cookie cutters. I got about 80 pieces of candy from this. To finish, I mixed gold luster dust with ground coriander and painted the edges of the callishones with rosewater be

Baronial 12th Night - Marchpane A Book of Cookrye, 1591

Marchpane, Gingerbread, Coriander Flavored Marzipan (Callishones) decorated with White Coriander Comfits How to make a good Marchpane. - First take a pound of long smal almonds and blanch them in cold water, and dry them as drye as you can, then grinde them small, and put no licour to them but as you must needs to keepe them from oyling, and that licour that you put in must be rosewater, in manner as you shall think good, but wet your Pestel therin, when ye have beaten them fine, take halfe a pound of Sugar and more, and see that it be beaten small in pouder, it must be fine sugar, then put it to your Almonds and beate them altogither, when they be beaten, take your wafers and cut them compasse round, and of the bignes you will have your Marchpaine, and then as soone as you can after the tempering of your stuffe, let it be put in your paste, and strike it abroad with a flat stick as even as you can, and pinch the very stuffe as it were an edge set upon, and then put a paper under it, a

12th Night Feast - Gyngerbrede Harl. MS 279, 1430 - Gingerbread

Marchpane, Gingerbread, Coriander Flavored Marzipan (Callishones) decorated with White Coriander Comfits iiij - Gyngerbrede. Take a quart of hony, and sethe it, and skeme it clene; take Safroun, pouder Pepir, and throw ther-on; take gratyd Brede, and make it so chargeaunt (Note: stiff) that it wol be y-lechyd; then take pouder Canelle, and straw ther-on y-now; then make yt square, lyke as thou wolt leche yt; take when thou lechyst hyt, an caste Box leves a-bouyn, y-stykyd ther-on, on clowys. And 3if thou wolt haue it Red, coloure it with Saunderys y-now. 4. Gingerbread - Take a quart of honey and cook it, and skim it clean; take saffron, powder pepper and throw there-on; take grated bread, and make it so stiff that it will be sliced; then take powder cinnamon, and strew there-on enough; then make it square, like as you will slice it; take when you slice it, and cast box-leaves above, stick there-on cloves. And if you will have it red, color it with saunders enough. Gingerbread 1 pound

Baronial 12th Night - To make white leach of creame - A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen (1602) and Jellied Ypocras

To make white leach of creame - A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen (1602) - To make white leach of creame. TAke a pint of sweete creame, and sixe spoone-fuls of Rose water, and two graines of Muske, two drops of oyle of Mace, or one piece of large Mace, and so let it boyle with foure ounces of Isin-glasse: then let it run downe through a gelly bagge, when it is cold, slice it like brawne, and so serue it out: this is the best way to make leach. A White Leach 1 pint half and half 3/8 of a cup rosewater 1 drop musk flavoring 2 tsp. ground mace 2 packages unflavored gelatine Bloom the gelatine in the rosewater. Put half and half and mace into a pan and bring to a boil. Lower heat and simmer for approximately five minutes, stirring constantly so that half and half does not burn. Add gelatin and stir until it is fully dissolved. Strain mixture into your mold or on a cookie sheet and place in refridgerator to cool for several hours. To serve, cut into small squares or unmold. Jellied Y

Baronial 12th Night - Spiced apples and pears Chiquart's 'On Cookery’, 1420

                                     Spiced apples and pears Chiquart's 'On Cookery’ , 1420 Again, pears cooked without coals or water: to instruct the person who will be cooking them, he should get a good new earthenware pot, then get the number of pears he will be wanting to cook and put them into that pot; when they are in it, stop it up with clean little sticks of wood in such a way that when the pot is upside down on the hot coals it does not touch them at all; then turn it upside down on the hot coals and keep it covered over with coals and leave it to cook for an hour or more. Then uncover them and check whether they have cooked enough, and leave them there until they are cooked enough. When they are cooked, put them out into fine silver dishes; then they are borne to the sick person. Chiquart's 'On Cookery, 1420 Spiced apples and pears Approximately 2 pound apples and pears ¼ cup sugar (I used brown) ¼ tsp cinnamon ¼ tsp. anise seeds (opt) 1/4 cup water Peel a

Baronial 12th Night - Cheese & Nuts

Cheese & Nuts  While researching dietary theory, specifically 15th century England , and brainstorming ways that the theory could be applied to modern day feasts specifically for SCA events, I learned that it was customary to serve later in the meal ripened or hardened cheeses (especially after meat) and nuts (after fish). Since I had served both at this event, I put together a "dessert" plate of cheeses, dried fruits and nuts. For the nuts I used a mixture of walnut, almond, hazel and pistachio nuts. The cheeses included mild cheddar in slices, white cheddar curds, gouda, blue cheese and brie. I also added dried fruit to the tray including raisins and currants mixed together, dried cherries, dried apricots, dates and figs.

Baronial 12th Night - Roasted Chestnuts, Turnips and Sage Le Menagier de Paris, 1393

Roasted Chestnuts, Turnips and Sage Le Menagier de Paris, 1393 - - Venison of Deer or Other Beast, If you wish to salt it in summer, it is appropriate to salt it in a wash-tub or bath, ground coarse salt, and after dry it in the sun. Haunch, that is the rump, which is salted, should be cooked first in water and wine for the first boiling to draw out the salt: and then throw out the water and wine, and after put to partly cook in a bouillon of meat and turnips, and serve in slices with some of the liquid in a dish and venison. Item, if you have small young turnips, you should cook it in water and without wine for the first boiling, then throw out the water, and then partly cook in water and wine and with sweet chestnuts, or if you have no chestnuts, some sage: then serve as above. Roasted Chestnuts, Turnips and Sage 2 pounds turnips, peeled and quartered Vegetable broth 1 cup white wine (opt. I used only vegetable broth) 1/4 pound shelled chestnuts ½ tsp. dried sage or 1 sprig fresh s

Baronial 12th Night - Pickled Barberries (Blueberries/Lingonberries) The Whole Body of Cookery Dissected, 1682

                                       Pickled Barberries (Blueberries) The Whole Body of Cookery Dissected, 1682 The copy of this book I have is a copy of the 1682 edition of Rabisha's book. The first edition of this book was printed in 1661. Many individuals have expressed concern on why I would choose to use books that are published after our time period. The answer is simple, despite being published late, many of the methods described were used in our time period, common foods and methodologies were not written down, and it is only later that you find them. To quote Mr. Rabisha, who says it quite eloquently: "..It hath been the practice of most of the ingenuous Men of all Arts and Science, to hold forth to posterity what light or knowledge they understood to be obscure in their said Art: And the wisest of Philosphers, learned and pious Men of old, have highly extolled these principles, who went not out like the snuff of a Candle, but have left thier Volumes to after-a

Baronial 12th Night - Guissell- Bread Dumplings Harl. MS 4016, 1450

Spatchcocked roast chicken served with "farce" balls and giussel along with pickled blueberries (pickled barberries) Harleian MS. 4016, ab. 1450 A.D. Guisseƚƚ. [supplied by ed.] *. [Taken from Douce MS. ] [folio 15.] Take faire capon̄ brotℏ, or of beef, And sette hit ouer the fire, and caste þerto myced sauge, parcelly and saffron̄, And lete boile; And streyn̄ the white and þe yolke of egges thorgℏ a streynour, and caste there-to faire grated brede, and medle hit togidre with thi honde, And caste the stuff to the brotℏ into þe pan̄; And stirre it faire and softe til hit come togidre, and crudded; And þen̄ serue it forth hote. Guissell. (Note: Taken from Douce MS.) Take faire capon broth or of beef, and set it over the fire and cast thereto minced sage, parsley and saffron, and let it boil; and strain the white and the yolk of eggs through a strainer, and cast thereto grated bread and meddle it all together with your hand, and caste the stuff to the broth into the pan; and s

Baronial 12th Night - Pickle for the Mallard - Onion Relish Harl. MS 279, 1430

Capon Farced, Let Lorey and Pickle for the Mallard PikkyH ipotir le Mallard. ^ Take oynons, and hewe hem smaH, and fry hem in fressh grace, and caste hem into a potte, And fressh broth of beef, Wyne, & powder of poper, canel, and dropping of the mallard/ And lete hem boile togidur awhile ; And take hit fro ]>e ijre, and caste thereto mustard a litul, And ponder of ginger. And lete hit boile no more, and salt hit, And seme it forthe with j^e Mallard. 36. Pickle for the Mallard. Take onions, and hew them small, and fry them in fresh grease, and cast them into a pot, and fresh broth of beef, wine & powder of pepper, cinnamon, and drippings of the mallard/ And let them boil together awhile; And take it from the fire, and cast thereto mustard a little, and powder of ginger, and let it boil no more, and salt it and serve it forth with the Mallard. Pickle for the Mallard – Onion Relish Harl. MS 279, 1430 2 medium onions sliced 1 tbsp. oil or lard 1 cup beef broth (you should be

Baronial 12th Night - Capon Farced – chicken stuffed with a mixture of sausage, onions and grapes, roasted Harl. MS 279, 1430 and How to Spatchcock Chickens

Spatchcocked roast chicken served with "farce" balls and giussel along with pickled blueberries (pickled barberries) I had originally planned to serve the chickens stuffed with the farce. The time to cook the chickens was problematic, and the last time I served chickens stuffed with a meat stuffing, the stuffing tinted the meat closest to it a light pink and despite the fact that the chickens were *falling apart* the diner's complained that because of the tint (I used veal and pork in the stuffing) the meat was not cooked. Not wanting a repeat of that experience I elected instead to spatchcock (butterfly) the chickens which would cook them evenly, and halve the cooking time. I also elected to turn the stuffing into "sausage balls" that was served as a side to the chickens. How to Spatchcock (butterfly) Chickens Word of advice--buy a cheap pair of kitchen shears if you are going to be doing this to a large number (16) of chickens. My shears needed to be resha

Baronial 12th Night - Garbage - stewed chicken offal (hearts, gizzards, livers, feet, neck) Harl. MS 279, 1430

          Fryer chickens went on sale ($.68/pound) right after Thanksgiving. I purchased 16 of them and much to my surprise on the day I was butterflying them I discovered that they came complete with neck, gizzards, liver and heart. Joy! A "found dish" within the already purchased ingredients that I could offer at the event for those brave enough to try it. I did purchase (on sale) an additional package of livers, gizzards and hearts, and chicken feet. I have to chuckle because at this particular event, the diner's got to enjoy mortis (mortrews), entrails (trayne roast), compost (pickled vegetables) and garbage (offal) all while being entertained with a boar's head. I'm not sure if anyone else realized it or if I have just let the cat out of the bag, but 12th night had a bit of an accidental darker theme going on :-D xvij - Garbage. Take fayre garbagys of chykonys, as the hed, the fete, the lyuerys, an the gysowrys; washe hem clene, an caste hem in a fayre pot

Baronial 12th Night - Brawn with Mustard- Pork with Mustard The good husvvifes ievvell, 1587

Brawn with Mustard- pork with mustard The good husvvifes ievvell, 1587 To sowce a Pigge. TAke white Wine and a litle sweete broth, and halfe a score Nutmegs cut in quarters, then take Rosemarie, Baies,Time, and sweete margerum, and let them boyle altogether, skum them verie cleane, and when they be boyled, put them into an earthen pan, and the syrop also, and when yee serue them, a quarter in a dish, and the Bayes, and nutmegs on the top. To Souse (pickle) a Pig. - Take white wine and a little sweet broth, and half a score nutmegs cut in quarters, then take rosemary, bay, thyme and sweet marjoram, and let them boil together, and skim them verie clean, and when they are boiled, put them into an earthen pan, and the syrup also, and when you serve them, a quarter in a dish, and the bay and nutmeg on the top.  Interesting note: A score is 20, so the recipe above called for ten quartered nutmegs! To Pickle Pork 2 cups water 1 cup white wine vinegar 1/4 cup kosher salt 2 tbsp. sugar I comb

Baronial 12th Night - Beef-y-stewed –Stewed Beef Harl. MS 279, 1430

                 .vj. Beef y-Stywyd. —Take fayre beef of þe rybbys of þe fore quarterys, an smyte in fayre pecys, an wasche þe beef in-to a fayre potte; þan take þe water þat þe beef was soþin yn, an strayne it þorw a straynowr, an sethe þe same water and beef in a potte, an let hem boyle to-gederys; þan take canel, clowes, maces, graynys of parise, quibibes, and oynons y-mynced, perceli, an sawge, an caste þer-to, an let hem boyle to-gederys; an þan take a lof of brede, an stepe it with brothe an venegre, an þan draw it þorw a straynoure, and let it be stylle; an whan it is nere y-now, caste þe lycour þer-to, but nowt to moche, an þan let boyle onys, an cast safroun þer-to a quantyte; þan take salt an venegre, and cast þer-to, an loke þat it be poynaunt y-now, & serue forth. 6. Beef Stewed - Take fair beef of the ribs of the fore quarters, and chop (smite) in fair pieces, and wash the beef into a fair pot; then take the water that the beef was washed (sothin) in, and strain it t

Baronial 12th Night Recipes - Rastons Harl. MS 279, 1430

Rastons? Is it a bread or a pastry? My most educated guess is "yes"-- all breads are a kind of pastry, but not all pastries are bread.  There have been several very lively discussions about this particular bit of history and whether or not the end product constitutes a pastry or a bread.  This particular recipe takes flour and eggs, mixes it with a leavening agent ( þan take Warme Berme), and then instructs you to let it rest ( & þenne lat reste a whyle), the end result being a product that is not unlike modern day bread.  I will leave it to you to continue the debate.  Rastons Harl. MS 279, 1430  .xxv. Rastons. —Take fayre Flowre, & þe whyte of Eyroun, & þe ȝolke, a lytel; þan take Warme Berme, & putte al þes to-gederys, & bete hem to-gederys with þin hond tyl it be schort & þikke y-now, & caste Sugre y-now þer-to, & þenne lat reste a whyle; þan kaste in a fayre place in þe oven, & late bake y-now; & þen with a knyf cutte yt round a-bo

Baronial 12th Night - Let Lardes – hard custard flavored with herbs cooked in bacon grease Harl. MS 4016, 1450

Delicious appetizers on the table featuring black olives, let lardes, capers, mortrews of pork & chicken, green olives, caperberries and mortrews of fish Let Lardes – hard custard flavored with herbs cooked in bacon grease Harl. MS 4016, 1450 Letlardes. - Take mylke scalding hote; And take eyren̄, the yolkes and the white, and drawe hem thorgh a streynour, and caste to þe mylke; And þen̄ drawe þe iuce of herbes, whicℏ that þou wiƚƚ, so þat þey ben̄ goode, and drawe hem thorgh a streynour. And whan̄ the mylke bigynnetℏ to crudde, caste þe Iuce thereto, if þou wilt haue it grene; And if þou wilt haue it rede, take Saundres, and cast to þe mylke whan̄ it croddeth, and leue þe herbes; And if þou wilt haue hit yelowe, take Saffron̄, and caste to þe mylke whan̄ hit cruddetℏ, and leve þe Saundres; And if þou wilt haue it of al þes colours, take a potte with mylke & Iuse of herbes, and anoþer potte witℏ mylke and saffron̄; And anoþer [folio 18b.] potte with mylke and saundres, and pu

Mortrews of Pork & Chicken and Mortrews of Fish - Baronial 12th Night Recipes

Delicious appetizers on the table featuring black olives, let lardes, capers, mortrews of pork & chicken, green olives, caperberries and mortrews of fish Mortrews of Pork & Chicken and Mortrews of Fish - an early form of pate Harl. MS 279, 1430 I did make a few changes from the original post ( Mortrews of Chicken & Pork and Fish ). In deference to modern tastes I added additional spicing to both of the Mortrews, and smoked the fish for the Mortrews of fish. Lastly I subbed broth for the ale in the Mortrews of pork and chicken, and whole milk for the almond milk in the Mortrews of Fish. .xliiij. Mortrewys de Fleyssh. —Take Porke, an seþe it wyl; þanne take it vppe and pulle a-way þe Swerde,*. [Rind, skin. ] an pyke owt þe bonys, an hakke it and grynd it smal; þenne take þe sylf brothe, & temper it with ale; þen take fayre gratyd brede, & do þer-to, an seþe it, an coloure it with Saffroun, & lye it with ȝolkys of eyroun, & make it euen Salt, & caste pou

Trayne Roste-Harleian MS 4016 ~1450 - Mock Entrails

Trayne Roste- Harleian MS 4016 ~1450 Trayne roste. [supplied by ed.] *. [Douce MS.] ¶ Take Dates and figges, and kutte hem in a peny brede; And þen̄ take grete reysons and blanched almondes, and prik hem thorgh with a nedel into a threde of a mannys lengtℏ, and one of one frute and a-noþer of a-noþer frute; and þen̄ bynde the threde with the frute A-bought a rownde spete, endelonge þe spete, in maner of an hasselet; And then̄ take a quarte of wyne or Ale, and fyne floure,*. [D. MS.; sugur, Harl. ] And make batur thereof, and cast thereto pouder ginger, sugur, & saffron̄,*. [Douce MS. ] pouder of Clowes, salt; And make þe batur not fully rennyng, and noþer stonding, but in þe mene, that hit may cleue, and than rost the*. ["than rost the": D. MS.; that rost, Harl. ] treyne abougℏt the fire in þe spete; And þen̄ cast the batur on̄ the treyne as he turnetℏ abought [supplied by ed.] the fire, so longe til þe frute be hidde in the batur; as þou castest þe batur there-on, hold a

For Pyes of Mutton or Beefe. - Mincemeat Pie (1591) and How to Render Suet

For Pyes of Mutton or Beefe. Shred your meat and Suet togither fine, season it with cloves, mace, Pepper, and same Saffron, great Raisins, Corance and prunes, and so put it into your Pyes. ~ A Book of Cookrye Very necessary for all such as delight therin printed by Edward Allde, London 1591 How to Render Suet I was fortunate enough to find suet at a local grocer. This was an extra step I took to add authenticity to the mince pies, but it is not a step you need to take. Suet, lard and vegetable suet are interchangeable. However, if you get the opportunity, you *should* try to make your own rendered suet, aka tallow. Why did I render it? To be quite honest, real suet is the fat around the kidneys, I had a sneaky suspicion that what I might have purchased as "suet" was not. Additionally, raw suet contains things we may not necessarily want to eat; skin, vein, blood and/or connective tissue...ick! The process is super easy if you have a crock pot. Trim off any visible bits of mea

Harleian MS. 279 (ab 1430) - lv. Iuschelle of Fysshe.

lv. Iuschelle of Fysshe - Fish Dumplings This unusual recipe found in  Two fifteenth-century cookery-books : Harleian MS. 279 (ab 1430), & Harl. MS. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1439, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS. 55 by Thomas Austin  immediately caught my eye and I had to try it.  Originally I had assumed that this dish would produce results similar to  Guisseƚƚ , a recipe for a savory bread dumpling, cooked in broth. I had always been a bit uncertain of that research, until I realized that the formula ofr Iuschelle of Fysshe is very similar to modern day quenelles, mixtures of meat or fish combined with breadcrumbs and cream that are usually poached.   To follow up on the theory it became important to understand what the term Iuschelle meant. The Middle English Dictionary defines Iuschelle (jussel n. Also jus(s)elle, jushel(le & guissel.) as: A dish made of eggs, or eggs mixed with grated bread, cooked in a seasoned broth; ~ of flesh; ~ sengle; ~ enforced