Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Harleian MS. 279 (ab. 1430) - Pompys - Meatballs in Almond Milk Gravy

A dish of Pumpes, flavorful and tender meatballs in a gravy made from broth, almond milk and spices. 
There has been a bit of upheaval in the house the past two weeks. In addition to cooking a fund raiser lunch for Collegium this past weekend, we redid the floors in the living room and foyer and starting in early March, the kitchen will be under renovation as well.  It may be a few weeks before I post another post.  My efforts though, may turn from the pottages section of Harliean MS 279, and move to the Dyverse Bake Metis (Baked dishes) or Leche Vyaundez (Sliced Dishes) as the adventures might continue with a roasting pan and crockpots! Keep an eye out. 

The most recent adventure focused on the very last pottage recipe, pompys.  This recipe created a very flavorful dish of meatballs in gravy made from broth, almond milk and rice flour.  I love meatballs.  I think they are one of the most versatile foods created, you can use them in almost anything and with the addition of rice, bulgur, bread, etc. you can extend your meat.

There are references to dishes made of shaped ground meat patties in Apicius. They are also referenced in some of the earliest Arabic cookbooks, and there is some speculation that China can trace the history of shaped ground meat patties to the Qin Dynasty (221 BC to 207 BC). It is possible that meatballs originated in Persia and are still eaten today as koofteh.

I hope you try this recipe and that you enjoy it as much as my taste testers and I did.  The original source of the recpe can be found  at Two fifteenth-century cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55" Thomas Austin

.Cliij. Pompys. — Take Beef, Porke, or Vele, on of hem, & raw, alle to-choppe it atte J;e dressoure, J^an grynd hem in a raorter as smal as ])0u may, J^an caste ])er-to Raw plkys of Eyrou?i, wyn, an a lytil whyte [sugre] : caste also ]7er-to ponder Pepyi-, & Macys, Clowes, Quybibys, ponder Canelle, Synamouii), & Salt, & a lytil Safroun ; ]>eu take & make smale Pelettys round y-now, & loke ]>at J>on haue a fayre potte of Freysshe brojie of bef or of Capoun, & euer j^row hem ]7er-on & lete hem sethe tyl J»at ]>ej ben y-now ; ]7en take & draw vppe a jryfty mylke of Almaundys, w/tA cold freysshe brojje of Bef, Vele, Motou), oj^er Capo«n, & a-lye it with floure of Eys & we'tA Spycerye; & atte J^e dressoure ley J7es pelettys .v. or .vj. in a dysshe, & J^en pore ]>m sewe aneward,^ & seme in, or ellys make a gode Jjryfty Syryppe & ley pin- pelettys atte j>e dressoure fcr-on, & ]>at is gode Berujse.^

Dan Myers has done an excellent job of interpreting the recipe and creating an easier to read version at his site Medieval Cookery.  Please click the link below to access his site.

Cliij - Pompys. Take Beef, Porke, or Vele, on of hem, and raw, alle to-choppe it atte the dressoure, than grynd hem in a morter as smal as thou may, than caste ther-to Raw 3olkys of Eyroun, wyn, an a lytil whyte sugre: caste also ther-to pouder Pepyr, and Macys, Clowes, Quybibys, pouder Canelle, Synamoun, and Salt, and a lytil Safroun; then take and make smale Pelettys round y-now, and loke that thou haue a fayre potte of Freysshe brothe of bef or of Capoun, and euer throw hem ther-on and lete hem sethe tyl that they ben y-now; then take and draw vppe a thryfty mylke of Almaundys, with cold freysshe brothe of Bef, Vele, Moton, other Capoun, and a-lye it with floure of Rys and with Spycerye; and atte the dressoure ley thes pelettys .v. or .vj. in a dysshe, and then pore thin sewe aneward, (Note: on it) and serue in, or ellys make a gode thryfty Syryppe and ley thin (Note: Thine) pelettys atte the dressoure ther-on, and that is gode seruyse. (Note: four blank pages follow)

153. Pumpes - Take beef, pork or veal, one of them and raw, all together chop it then grind them in a mortar as small as you may, then cast thereto raw yolks of eggs, wine, and a little white sugar: caste also thereto powder pepper and mace, cloves, cubebs, powder cinnamon and salt and a little saffron; then take and make small pellets round enough, and look that you have a fair pot of fresh broth of beef or of capon and ever throw them thereon and let them seethe till they be enough; then take and draw up a thrifty milk of almonds, with cold fresh broth of beef, veal, mutton or capon, and thicken it with rice flour and with spices; and at the table, lay the pellets five or six in a dish and then pour the syrup on it and serve it, or else, make a good syrup and lay the pellet thereon and good service.

Interpreted Recipe                                                        Serves 1 as a main, two as a side

1/4 pound ground meat (veal, pork, beef or a mix)
1 egg  yolk
1 tbsp. wine (I used white)
1 tsp. sugar
1/8 tsp. each mace, cloves, cubebs, saffron
1/4 tsp. cinnamon and pepper
salt to taste
2 cups broth (chicken, beef, or a 50/50 mix)
1 cup almond milk (I used the quick almond milk recipe subbing a 50% mix of broth for water)
2-3 tbsp. rice flour
1/8 tsp. each mace cloves, cubeb, saffron
1/4 tsp. cinnamon and pepper
salt to taste

Mix the ground meat with the egg yolk, wine, sugar and spices and form into bite sized balls.  Bring the broth to a simmer and add your meatballs.  Cook till they have been thoroughly cooked.

Remove the meatballs from the broth and make your almond milk using the broth you cooked your meatballs in.  Heat your almond milk to a simmer and add the rice flour and spices.  Cook your broth until it comes to your desired thickness. You may want to strain your broth before serving because the rice flour may clump.

Add several meatballs to your bowl and pour the almond milk broth over them.

These are delicious, and definitely will be making an appearance at a future event.  These are very easy to make, and can be made ahead of an event, frozen and thawed the day of.  They were a big hit at the house and the taste testers scarfed them all up and drank down the broth.  I think they would have licked the bowl clean if they could have gotten away with it!

Saturday, February 20, 2016

Collegium Lunch Fundraiser Tavern

I've been a bit busy this past week, and as usual, no pictures were taken ~sighs~

Lunch Tavern - Donations for this lunch go to fund Arts & Sciences at the SCA 50 Year Celebration. 


Onion Pottage w/French bread and Cheese

Fry good store of slic’t onions, then have a pipkin of boiling liquor over the fire, when the liquor bils put in the fryed onions, butter and all, with pepper and salt: being well stewed together, serve in on sops of French bread.

Robert May, The Accomplisht Cook

3 tbsp. olive oil
½ pound of onions peeled and sliced 1/4 “thick
4 cups vegetable stock
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Melt butter in a large skillet, add sliced onions and sauté for about 10 minutes or until golden brown stirring occasionally. Bring broth to boil, add onions and cook over medium heat for ten minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Put toasted bread in individual bowls, pour broth over the onions and serve immediately.

Pork Pie with Mustard

Take a Loin of Pork and bone it, and cut thereof into thin collops beaten with the clever, also take as many collops of veal thin beaten; season your Pork with pepper, salt, and minces sage, season your Veal with cloves, mace, nutmeg and minced Thyme; put yolks of eggs to each of your meats, and mingle them together, with their several seasonings, then a laying of pork, in the form you intend to make your pye, either round or otherwise; and then a laying of your veal thereon, so continue till you have laid all of your meat, then take a rolling-pin and beat it well into a body, put it in your coffin made for that purpose, close it, indore it, bake it: when it is cold, fill it with clarified butter; let your pork be the end of the loyn, and both undermost and uppermost in your pye.

William Rabisha, The Whole Body of Cookery Dissected

1 pound loin of pork boned
1/8 tsp. pepper
¼ tsp. sage
¼ tsp. thyme
½ tsp. salt
2 egg yolks
1/8 tsp. mace
¼ tsp. nutmeg
1/8 tsp ground cloves
3 tbsp. butter diced
2 pie shells

Remove any fat from the pork and with a sharp knife slice as thin as you can. Mix the pepper, sage, thyme and ¼ tsp. of salt with one of the egg yolks and stir ¾ of the slices of pork around in this until they are coated with the mixture. Cover and set aside until needed.

Mix the mace, nutmeg, cloves and the remaining ¼ tsp. salt with the other egg yolk and stir in the remaining ¼ pork slices in this until well coated.

Layer the pork in the pie shell, alternating 2 layers of the pepper season pork with 1 of the mace and clove seasoned pork. Dot with butter-seal the pie shell, brush with egg white and bake at 450degrees for twenty minutes, lower the heat to 350 degrees 25 minutes longer.

Serve hot, warm or room temperature—do not refrigerate.

Cold Roast Chicken with Choice of Sauce - Chicken was cooked at 350 degrees with olive oil, salt, pepper and garlic

White Garlic Sauce

2-3 garlic cloves crushed
½ cup slivered almonds
2 tbsp. breadcrumbs
1-2 cups chicken broth

Combine all ingredients in a blender and grind, strain through sieve and serve

Cold Sage Sauce

1 cup fresh parsley
1 cup fresh sage
1 cup hot chicken broth (or bouillon)
¼ cup white wine vinegar
2 hard boiled egg yolks (OMIT)
½ tsp. salt
½ tsp. ginger
¼ tsp. grains of paradise, cinnamon
2 slices white bread crusts removed

Process parsley and sage in blender with chicken broth, blend slowly and cook on low heat. Add vinegar to mashed hard boiled egg yolks and blend with herb mixture. Add spices, add bread a little at a time until a thick consistency is reached. Remove from heat and cool.

Must Sauce

1 cup grape juice concentrate
¼ to ½ cup water
½ -1 tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp ginger
1 egg
1 tbsp honey
1/2 tsp. grains of paradise

Combine or heat grape juice and water. Stir in spices, bring to a boil, then simmer for 5 minu. In a small bowl beat egg slightly, temper it with hot liquid and then stir tempered egg into the sauce. Add honey, simmer until desired consistency is reached. Serve cold.

Cold Lentil Salad

1 cup red lentils, uncooked
1 tbsp. olive oil
2 tbsp. freshly squeezed lemon juice
1 clove garlic, minced
2 tbsp. red wine vinegar
2 green onions, chopped
2 tbsp. parsley, chopped
¼ small red onion, chopped
1 carrot, chopped
salt and pepper to taste

Add enough water to fully cover lentils in a deep pot and cook, covered, over medium-high heat until a little underdone. Drain, rinse with cold water and set aside. In a small mixing bowl, whisk together olive oil, lemon juice, garlic and vinegar. Set aside. In a medium mixing bowl, combine cooked lentils, green onions, parsley, red onion and carrot. Drizzle olive oil mixture over salad and toss well. Season to taste with kosher salt and ground black pepper, if desired. Refrigerate, covered, overnight and serve with feta cheese.

Roasted Root Veggies (Non Period)

1 butternut squash, peeled, seeded and chopped
1 sweet potato
2 Yukon gold potatoes
1 bunch of beets, scrubbed tops trimmed
2 large parsnips
1 onion
1 head of garlic, cloves peeled and separated
2 tbsp. olive oil
Salt and pepper to taste
1-2 tsps. Herb de Provence

Cut the vegetables into 1" cubes, drizzle with olive oil, and season with herbs de provence, salt and pepper. Roast the vegetables in a 425 degree oven for approximately 45 minutes, stirring occasionally, or until vegetables become tender and golden brown.

Pickles - dill & sweet
Banana Peppers
Black and Green Olives


Water, Soda

Thursday, February 11, 2016

Harleian MS 279 (~1430) - Fylettys en Galentyne - Stewed Pork

Fylettys en Galentyne
Trying to trace the domestication of pigs is a puzzle.  Research indicates that many plants and animals were domesticated in central Asia, Turkey and Iran and were brought to Europe. However, researchers speculate that the wild pig was native to Europe, and may have been domesticated in Europe separately from similar animals found in Asia.

Pigs were semi-domesticated in the middle ages. They were left to run wild and to care for themselves independently. In November they would be rounded up and slaughtered.  Excess meat was salted or smoked. It is possible that pork was one of the more common foods that were eaten during this time.  The Doomsday Book in 1085 records the population of pigs in Norfolk, Sussex and Essex as 31,000 animals.

One interesting, albeit grim bit of information I ran across while researching domesticated pigs had to do with animal trials.  In the middle ages if an animal committed a crime, it would be put on trial before being punished. There are at least 85 documented animal trials, and possibly more that were undocumented. For more information on animal trials, visit this link.

Another interesting tidbit of information regarding pigs--in 1132, Crown Prince Louis Phillipe died when his horse tripped over a pig in Paris. By the 1300's, pigs become one of the earliest animals to be used in commercial art.  Butcher's shops began to use pigs in artwork as a way of attracting customers to their shops.

.xvj. Fylettys en Galentyne. — Take fayre porke, ]>e fore quarter, an take of ]>e skyne ; an put Jje porke on a fayre spete, an rost it half y-now ; Jjan take it of, an smyte it in fayre pecys, & caste it on a fayre potte ; J^an take oynonys, and schrede hem, an pele hem (an pyle hem nowt to smale), an f rye in a panne of fayre grece ; l^an caste hem in }e potte to ]>e porke ; )7an take gode broth of moton or of beef, an caste J^er-to, an J^an caste J^er-to pouder pepyr, canel, clowys, an macys, an let hem boyle wyl to-gederys ; Jian tak fayre brede, an vynegre, an stepe j^e brede with ]>e same brothe, an strayne it on blode, with ale, or ellys sawnderys, and *salt, an lat hym boyle y-now, an serue it forth.

xvj - Fylettys en Galentyne. Take fayre porke, the fore quarter, an take of the skyne; an put the porke on a fayre spete, an rost it half y-now; than take it of, an smyte it in fayre pecys, and caste it on a fayre potte; than take oynonys, and schrede hem, an pele hem (an pyle hem nowt to smale), an frye in a panne of fayre grece; than caste hem in the potte to the porke; than take gode broth of moton or of beef, an caste ther-to, an than caste ther-to pouder pepyr, canel, clowys, an macys, an let hem boyle wyl to-gederys; than tak fayre brede, an vynegre, an stepe the brede with the same brothe, an strayne it on blode, with ale, or ellys sawnderys, andsalt, an lat hym boyle y-now, an serue it forth.

16. Fillets in Galentyne - Take fair pork, the fore quarter (boston butt or shoulder), an take off the skin; an put the pork on a fair spit, an roast it half enough; than take it off and cut it into bite sized pieces (smyte it in fayre pecys), and cast it on a fair pot; than take onions and shred them, and peel them (and peel them not to small), and fry in a pan of fair grease; then cast them in the pot to the pork; than take good broth of mutton or of beef, and cast there-to, and than cast thereto powder pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and mace, and let them boil well together; than take fair bread, and vinegar, an soak the bread with the same broth, and strain it on blood, with ale, or else sandalwood, and salt, an let them boil enough, and serve it forth.

Interpreted Recipe                                                                    Serves 1 as a main, 2 as a side

1/4 pound pork sliced (I broiled the tenderloin 3 minutes on each side and let cool, then cut into bite sized pieces)
1 C. broth (beef, chicken or a 50/50 mix of beef and chicken)
1/4 C. onion cut into thin slices
1 tbsp. olive oil
1/4 tsp. each pepper & cinnamon
1/8 tsp. each clove and mace
2 tbsp. bread crumbs (I used rastons)
1 tsp. red wine vinegar
1 tsp. sandalwood
Salt to taste

I had a spare "tail" of tenderloin I had saved for this recipe, so I broiled it for 3 minutes on each side, and set it aside to cool.  While the pork is cooling, slice and shred the onion and cooked it slowly in the olive oil until tender but not browned.  Heat the broth with the sandalwood to just below simmer and allow to steep (I used beef broth andsandalwood chips, I did not get the reddish color I was expecting, you may want to add more sandalwood. What I did get was a broth that looked more substantially brown). Add the vinegar to the bread crumbs and allow to soften.

 Strain the sandalwood from the broth if needed, add the onion, pork into bite sized chunk, cinnamon, pepper, mace and cloves.  Cook until the pork has cooked thoroughly. Add 2 additional tablespoons of the broth to the bread crumbs to make "slurry" of sorts, and then add the breadcrumbs to the pork mixture and stir until the broth has thickened.  Taste for seasoning, add additional salt if needed, and then serve.

My taste testers enjoyed this dish immensely.  There are numerous interpretations of this recipe available online, this is mine.  I would definately serve this dish again in the future.  What I might change the next time I make it is lowering the amount of cinnamon and increasing the amount of sandalwood. I first became familiar with this recipe through the video below.  I very much enjoy watching the many videos produced by Historic Royal Palaces. I highly recommend this resource. 

Similar Recipes:

Forme of Cury (England, 1390)

Fylettes Of Galyntyne. XXVIII. Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys. drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do þerinne. seeþ it wele. and do þerinne powdour an salt an messe it forth.

Filetus in Galentine. Take filetes of porke and half hom rost, Smyte hom in peses with outene bost. Draw3e a lyoure of blode and brede withalle, Do venegur þer to, I wot þou schalle. Fors hit with powder of canel, or gode gynger, Sethe hit with þo flesshe, alle in fere. Salt and messe forthe, þenne Set hit in sale before gode menne.

A Noble Boke off Cookry (England, 1468)

To mak felettes in galentyne tak of the best of ribbes of pork and fley of the skyn and put the flesshe upon a broche and rost it till it be almost enoughe then tak it of and chope it in peces and put it in a pot with onyons butter and faire grece hole clowes maces quybibes and put it to gedur with a crust of bred and try it through a strener with whit wyne put ther to pouder of peper and put it in the pot and when it boilithe let it not be chargant and sesson it up with poudre of guingere and salt it and serue it.

Sunday, February 7, 2016

Harleian MS. 279 (ab. 1430) - Murrey - Another Meat Sauce

Murrey - Meat sauce seasoned with ginger and galingale, sweetened with a touch of honey and thickened with bread.  Normally colored with Saunders. 
Two unusual recipes caught my interest while I was researching Two fifteenth-century cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55" Thomas Austin and I had determined that I was going to try them. They both appeared to be recipes for a kind of "meat sauce".

Murrey, like Rapeye, is another recipe that appears to be the name for a kind of sauce, in this case, one that is red, or reddish, in color, and thickened. For example, this recipe is from the Forme of Curye, written approximately 1390, shows a very early form of the recipe that I used.
.xxxviij. Morree. Tak almaundes blaunched, waisch hem, grynde hem, & temper hem up with rede wyne, & alye hem with flour of rys, do therto pynes & fryed & colour it with saundres, do therto poudour fort & poudour douce and salt & messe hit forth & flour hit with aneys confyt whyte.
This recipe from MS Royal 12 (1340), references the various different ingredients that you can use to complete the sauce.
Moree. rice flour or amidon, whichever can be found; that the color of sandalwood will be had, grind well in a mortar; and then it must be tempered in almond milk and well strained. And then put powdered cinnamon and of galingale. If it is a fish day, put in pears or chestnuts or salmon, or luce or perch; if a meat day, put in veal orgoat, if you would have a good and royal meat. 
Below is the original recipe from Two fifteenth-century cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55" Thomas Austin.

Mxxj. Murrey. — Take Porke an Yele, & sethe it, & grynd it, & draw it with Jie self brothe ; J^en take bred y-gratyd, & pouder of Gyngere & of Galyngale, & Hony, an caste J^er-to, & boyle it y-fere ; & make it chargeaunt, & coloure it with Saunderys & serue f[orth].

To find similar recipes, visit the link below. It will lead you to Dan Myers' Medieval Cookery website. I urge anyone with an interest in historic cooking, or if you are foodie, to visit this site.

lxxj - Murrey. Take Porke an Vele, and sethe it, and grynd it, and draw it with the self brothe; then take bred y-gratyd, and pouder of Gyngere and of Galyngale, and Hony, an caste ther-to, and boyle it y-fere; and make it chargeaunt, and coloure it with Saunderys and serue forth [correction; sic = f].

71. Murrey - Take pork and veal and soak it and grind it, and draw it with the same broth; then take bread grated, and powder of Ginger and Galingale, and Honey, and caste there-to, and boil it together; and make it thick, and color it with saunders and serve forth.

Interpreted Recipe                                                                             Serves 1 as a main, 2 as a side

1/4 Pound ground pork, or ground pork and veal
1 Cup broth (beef, chicken or a 50/50 mix)
1 Tsp. Honey
1/8 Tsp. Ginger and Galingale
3 Tbsp. Bread Crumbs (I used Rastons)
1-2 Tsp. Sandlewood (I had chips--see below for why I didn't use them)
Salt and Pepper to taste

Place your broth in a pot and add the sandlewood chips (please note: my daughter wanted to test out a "burgundy" food dye for an upcoming play on red velvet cake, so we skipped this entirely, and instead added the tiniest amount of the food dye to the broth. This turned it a lovely "raw meat" red and led to a few questions about food safety--do not do this ever!!!! The picture shows questionably colored meat but I do assure you, was thoroughly cooked, albeit dyed pork!)

Bring the broth to a simmer and remove from the heat.  Allow the sandlewood to steep until the broth takes on a reddish hue (approximately 5-15 minutes) then strain the chips from the broth.

Return the broth to the stove, and add the ground pork, making sure to break it into small pieces as you add it to the broth. Once the pork has been added and begins to cook add the honey, ginger and galingale.  Let cook until the pork has been cooked through, and add the bread crumbs. Once the bread has been added stir the mixture until the sauce has thickened to your preference.  Remove from heat, taste for seasoning and serve.

These are very easy to put together and an effective use I believe for any leftover ground pork, or in this case, pork and veal (or hamburger) that you might have.  It reminds me of bolognese sauce made without tomato.  I could almost imagine that this could be one of the very earliest recipes for the great modern day Italian bolognese sauce.

The beauty of this dish is that we are told to "make it chargeaunt", meaning, make it thick, but the thickness of this dish is up to the cook. Like Rapeye, I chose to make this a very thick, almost dry, sauce. I do know that I will be serving this dish again in the future, possibly as a sauce to put with rice, or noodles.

Rapeye (on the left) and Murrey (on the right) two examples of a medieval meat sauce.
Similar Recipes:

An Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook (Andalusia, 13th c. - Charles Perry, trans.)

A Dish of Murri from Any Meat You Wish. Put meat in the pot and throw on it spices, an onion pounded with cilantro and salt, and throw on it three spoonfuls of murriand one spoonful of vinegar, and the same of oil, and fry and cover with oil and cook until done and browned. Ladle out and sprinkle with pepper and cinnamon. If you omit the vinegar, it is good, and if you throw in soaked garbanzos and a little rue, it is good, God willing.

Friday, February 5, 2016

Harleian MS. 279 (ab. 1430) - Rapeye of Fleysshe - Meat Sauce

Rapeye - Medieval Meat Sauce of ground pork, honey, egg and broth, sprinkled with a mix of ginger and galingale. 

Medieval meat sauce! Yes, these are two examples of dishes that as I interpreted very closely resemble a meat sauce that you would serve over pasta. In trying to define the word "Rapeye" several sources refer to "Rapeye" as a thick spiced sauce, made of fruit and boiled with wine.  Yes, there are recipes for this dish that do resemble the defination.  This one does not, and being unusual to begin with begged to be tried.

The recipe for this dish can be found at  Two fifteenth-century cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55" Thomas Austin.

.Cvj. Rapeye of Fleysshe. — Take lene Porke y-sode & y-grounde smalle, & tempere it vppe w/t/( )e self broj^e, & do it in a potte, an caste J^er-to a lytil honye, & boyle it tyl it be chargeaunt ; & a-lye it wyth pYkjs of Eyroun, & coloure it with Saunderys, & dresse forth, and ponder Marchaunt.

Cvj - Rapeye of Fleysshe. Take lene Porke y-sode and y-grounde smalle, and tempere it vppe with the self brothe, and do it in a potte, an caste ther-to a lytil honye, and boyle it tyl it be chargeaunt; and a-lye it wyth 3olkys of Eyroun, and coloure it with Saunderys, and dresse forth, and pouder Marchaunt.

106. Rapeye of Flesch - Take lean pork soaked and ground small and temper it up with the same broth and do it in a pot, and cast there-to a little honey, and boil it till it be thick: and mix it with yolks of egg, and color it with saunders, and dress forth, and powder Marchaunt.

A search for the term Marchaunt brought forth this information from the Online Etymology Dictionary. It is safe, therefore, I believe to assume that the "pouder Marchaunt" that is referred to in the recipe above indicates a spice mix that was purchased from a merchant already blended. As the Rapeye recipe resembles closely the recipe for Murray recipe, I used the same spices to dress this dish; ginger & galingale.
merchandise (n.) 
mid-13c., "trading, commerce;" mid-14c., "commodities of commerce, wares, articles for sale or trade," from Anglo-French marchaundise, Old Frenchmarcheandise "goods, merchandise; trade, business" (12c.), from marchaunt "merchant" (see merchant).

Interpreted Recipe                                                              Serves 1 as a main, 2 (or more) as a side

1/4 pound Ground pork
1 Cup Beef broth -or- chicken broth -or- pork broth -or- mix 50/50 beef and pork (I used beef)
1 Tsp. Honey
1-2 Egg yolks (I used two because I wanted a thicker product)
1 Heaping Tsp. Sanders (I have chips, so if you have powder you will want to use less and may get a better color result)
Salt and Pepper to taste
A pinch of ginger and galingale

Add the sanders to the broth and heat to a simmer.  Cover and set aside letting the color from the sanders leech into the broth, for me, I got a lovely orange-ish color, but I did not attain the red that I was expecting so I may not have used enough sanders.  Once the broth has reached the desired color, you will need to strain it (if you are using chips).

Return the broth to the pot and add the pork broken into small pieces and the honey.  Bring to a boil and cook until the pork is no fully cooked. Temper the egg yolks with some of the heated broth, and then return the eggs to the pan.  Cook over medium heat until the mixture has thickened to your preference.  This mixture will continue to thicken as it cools.  You may want to remove it from the heat a little bit before you reach your preference. Season to taste with salt and pepper.  Before serving sprinkle with a pinch of ginger and galingale.

I think I got this a little too thick before removing it from the fire.  By the time the pictures were taken the Rapeye had thickened to a soft pudding.

The kids who have become my regular group of guinea pigs have now learned to trust the cook.  They ate it and enjoyed it.   I am iffy on this dish, not because of the taste which was quite good, but because of the appearance.

Rapeye is not the most appetizing dish to look at (one of my testers said it resembled cat puke), and with that lovely description, this dish might fall into the category of something that could be just a little bit "too" period.  *IF* I were to serve this dish at an event, I would introduce it as a side dish so that the most brave among my audience could give it a try.  I would not introduce it as a main course--I would be afraid that my diners might put up white flags of surrender. However, because this is a meat sauce this might be a great dish to serve as an accompaniment to a dish of noodles or rice.  Maybe if the hall is dark enough........nobody would notice?

Rapeye (on the left) and Murrey (on the right) two examples of a medieval meat sauce.

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Harleian MS 279 (ab. 1430) - Cawdelle Ferry - Wine Pudding

Cawdell Ferry
One of the many spices that was used quite a bit in the Middle Ages was a spice known as Galangal (Alpinia officinarum), which is a very aromatic spice that is peppery, gingery, piney and sharp in flavor with a very pleasant citrus scent. It is pronounced guh-lang-guh and is most often used in modern Thai and Indonesian cuisines. It is related to ginger, and ginger can be substituted for it, but lacks the peppery, piney flavor and the scent of the spice. It is believed to have originated in Indonesia and is found in many areas including Thailand, Africa, Arabia, Spain, Italy and Russia. This spice fell out of favor in Europe sometime in the mid 1600's. 

It has both culinary and medicinal uses. The fresh root is very woody and if you happen to find it, you will need to slice it very thin or grate it to add it to a dish, and the best use of the fresh root is in dishes that must be stewed or cooked for a long period of time.

As a medicine, Galangal was used in the Middle Ages as a snuff against Catarrh-a buildup of mucus in the nose or throat with associated symptoms of inflammation. Chewing the root was believed to prevent sea-sickness, vomiting or nausea. There is even rumor that it can be made into an aphrodisiac drink for men.

Galangal is featured in this recipe for wine pudding found in the Two fifteenth-century cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55" Thomas Austin.

.xlvij. Cawdelle Ferry. — Take plkys of eyi-oun Raw, y-tryid fro the whyte ;• jmn take gode wyne, and warme it on j^e potte on a fayre Fyre, an caste ]7er-on plkys, and stere it wyl, but let it nowt boyle tylle it be ]7ikke ; and caste jjer-to Sugre, Safroun, & Salt, Maces, Gelofres, an Galyngale y-grounde smal, & flowre of Canelle; & whan ]>ovf dressyst yn, caste blanke ponder ))er-on.

Thank you Dan Myers for the cleaner version of this recipe :-)

xlvij - Cawdelle Ferry. Take 3olkys of eyroun Raw, y-tryid fro the whyte; than take gode wyne, and warme it on the potte on a fayre Fyre, an caste ther-on 3olkys, and stere it wyl, but let it nowt boyle tylle it be thikke; and caste ther-to Sugre, Safroun, and Salt, Maces, Gelofres, an Galyngale y-grounde smal, and flowre of Canelle; and whan thow dressyst yn, caste blanke pouder ther-on.

47. Caudell Ferry - Take yolks of eggs, raw, separated from the white, then take good wine and warm it on the pot on a fair fire, and caste there-on yolks, and stir it well, but let it not boil till it be thick, and caste there-to sugar, saffron, and salt, maces, gillyflowers and galangal ground small, and flour of cinnamon, and when you dress in, cast white powder there-on.

Interpreted Recipe                                                                               Serves 1 as a Main, 2 as a Side

1 Cup Cabernet Sauvignon
3 Egg yolks -or- 1 large egg, beaten with a pinch of salt
1 Tbsp. Sugar
3 Cloves
1/8 Tsp. each mace and galingale
1/4 tsp. cinnamon
Pinch of saffron
Pouder Douce to taste

Heat wine, saffron and cloves over a double boiler for five minutes after boiler starts to boil. Remove the cloves. Add Sugar, mace, galingale and cinnamon to the wine, and heat until dissolved. Temper the eggs with the heated wine, and add the tempered mixture to the remaining wine in the pot. Stir until the mixture thickens to taste. I made mine the consistency of a thick white sauce-it took approximately 5 minutes to thicken. Strain your pudding before serving to remove any lumps that may have formed, and any remaining cloves (in case you miscounted!). Right before serving sprinkle with Pouder Douce.

This went over very well with the taste testers. One tester remarked "it tastes like a pie filling". I served this warm, but I imagine that you would be able to store it refrigerated for a short period of time if you place plastic wrap upon the surface. A yucky skin forms *very quickly* on the pudding, which is why you don't see pouder douce in the picture :-(

I would definitely serve this again. This would be excellent for a royal luncheon. The saffron enhances the color of the wine, in this case a soft purple, and I really wanted to place a few gilded sugar paste candies on top. Alas, I did not have any on hand. The recipe calls for "gillyflowers" which is another name for "Clove Pinks" a member of the Dianthus family. Carnations are a close relative, if you have these flowers growing in your yard, I would suggest that you candy them, and reserve them throughout the year-as long as you have not sprayed them with pesticides or herbicides.

Similar Recipes:

Forme of Cury (England, 1390)

Cawdel Ferry. XX.II. I. Take flour of Payndemayn and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do þerto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do þertosafroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with zolkes of ayrenn. and do þerto salt and messe it forth. and lay þeron sugur and powdour gyngur.

Liber cure cocorum [Sloane MS 1986] (England, 1430)

Kaudel Ferry. Take almondes unblanchyd, so have þou cele, And wasshe hom fayre and grynd hom wele. Temper hom up with wyne so clene, And drau3e hom þorowgh a canvas shene. In pot þou coloure hit with safron, And lye hit up with Amydone, Or with floure of ryse so fre. Ry3t thykke loke þou þat be. Seson hit withsugur grete plenté, Florysshe hit with maces, I tel þe.
A Noble Boke off Cookry (England, 1468)

To mak cawdelle ferry tak unblanched almonds wesshe them and grind them and temper them up with wyne and drawe it throughe a canvas into a pot and colour it with saffron and alay it up with amydon or flour of rise and se that it be thik sesson it with sugur and florishe it with maces and serue it.