Saturday, February 21, 2015

A Selection of Dishes from Harleian MS 279 published approximately 1430 -Capon or Goose Stuffed, Pickle for the Mallard (Onion Jam), Let lory (Fresh Cheese)

Capoun Farced, Let Lory (top right) & Pickle for the Mallard

February 20th was the date selected to have a cook's gathering in my local Barony. However, the weather and illness proved extremely uncooperative and we were unable to meet. The decision to cancel was made after I had started cooking the food I was going to bring. Pictured above are the items that would have been served at this gathering; Capoun or Gos Farced, Let Lory and Pickle for the mallard. Below are the orginal recipes as they appears here: Two Fifteenth-Century Cookbooks - Harliean MS 279, the translated recipes and the redactions need to be credited to Cindy Renfrow and her excellent book "Take a Thousand Eggs or More". If you are interested in cooking in this time period, consider investing in this book. Also, please note that I included my notes that I sent out to the other individuals who were supposed to be joining me at the gathering. All in all, I would have to say I had two extremely successful and well received dishes and one so-so dish. 

Original Recipe: XXXV. Capoun or gos farced.
— Take Percely, & Swynys grece, or Sewet of a schepe, & parboyle hem to-gederys til J^ey ben tendyr; J^an take harde plkys of Eyroun, & choppe for-w/tA ; caste ])er-to Pouder Pepir, Gyngere, Canel, Safroun, & Salt, & grapis in tyme of jere, & clowys y-nowe ; & for defawte of grapis, Oynons, fyrst wil y-boylid, & afterward alle to-choppyd, & so stufFe hym & roste hym, & serue hym forth. And jif ]70 lust, take a litil Porke y-sode, & al to-choppe hit smal a-mong )7«to|ier ; for it wol be J^e better, & namely ^ for ]>e Capoun.

Translated: 35. Capon or Goose stuffed. Take parsley & swines grease, or suet of a sheep, and parboil them together till they are tender; then take hard yolks of eggs, and chop forthwith; cast thereto powdered pepper, ginger, cinnamon, saffron & salt & grapes in time of year, and cloves enough; & for default of grapes, onions, first well boiled & afterward all chopped, & so stuff him & roast him, & serve him forth. And if thee like, take a little pork seethed, & all chop it small among that other; for it will be the better, & especially for the capon.

Interpreted Recipe

Stuffed Goose or Capon – Serves 8-10 – Basic recipe – note variations to follow

1 capon, approximately 6 pounds
1 cup chopped parsley
¼ cup water
½ cup fatty chicken broth
2 tbs. bacon fat, lard or suet
2 small onions peeled and chopped –or- ½ cup seedless grapes
1 tsp. salt
2 tsp. ginger
Dash of pepper
½ tsp. cinnamon powder
3 hardboiled egg yolks (or 1 hardboiled egg)

Note: The recipe calls for onions well boiled. Ms. Renfrow does not do this step in her recipe. I would strongly suggest that you boil the onions and chop finely when cooled before proceeding with the recipe.

Put parsley, water, broth and fat and onions in a pot and bring to a boil. Cook for five minutes. Remove the pot from heat. Remove the parsley and onions from the bowl and put them in a bowl. Add spices, salt and hardboiled egg to the parsley and onions and blend thoroughly. Stuff the capon with this mixture. Place the bird in a roasting pan and roast at 350 degrees for 1 ½ - 2 hours or until the juices run clear when poked with a fork. Remove the bird from the oven and place on a serving dish. Scoop out stuffing and serve separately, if desired. Serve hot.

Variation One: add saffron to the stuffing.

Variation Two: Add ¼ tsp. clove powder along with the grapes instead of onions.

Variation Three: Simmer a ½ pound of mild spiced pork sausage (or sage sausage) in ½ cup water until no pink remains. Drain sausage and add to any of the stuffing variations.

I used Variation three with a bit of modification. I used 1 small onion and 1/2 cup red grapes, along with a clove and the sausage. This was delicious. It had rave reviews from my daughter, her boyfriend and an older family friend. Even my husband who despises anything green or "weird" ate the chicken with no muss or complaints. This is definitely on my "things to cook at a future SCA Feast list."

Original Recipe: PikkyH ipotir le Mallard. ^ Take oynons, and hewe hem smaH, and fry hem in fressh grace, and caste hem into a potte, And fressh broth of beef, Wyne, & powder of poper, canel, and dropping of the mallard/ And lete hem boile togidur awhile ; And take hit fro ]>e ijre, and caste thereto mustard a litul, And ponder of ginger. And lete hit boile no more, and salt hit, And seme it forthe with j^e Mallard.

Translated: 36. Pickle for the Mallard. Take onions, and hew them small, and fry them in fresh grease, and cast them into a pot, and fresh broth of beef, wine & powder of pepper, cinnamon, and drippings of the mallard/ And let them boil together awhile; And take it from the fire, and cast thereto mustard a little, and powder of ginger, and let it boil no more, and salt it and serve it forth with the Mallard.

Interpreted Recipe

Pickle for the Mallard – Makes 2 ½ cups Serves 4 (Again, this is enough for 1 table of 8 during a feast-use your best judgment)

3 medium onions chopped
2 tbsp. oil or lard
½ cup beef broth (you should be able to sub chicken or 50/50 beef/ chicken mix)
½ cup white wine
¼ tsp. pepper
½ tsp. cinnamon
2 tbsp. melted duck fat (if available, otherwise you should be able to sub out for oil, chicken fat, or lard)
½ tsp. dry mustard
½ tsp. ginger
1 tsp. salt

In large skillet over medium heat, fry the onions in oil until they are transparent, add the broth, wine, pepper, cinnamon, duck fat, and let the mixture boil until the flavors are mixed, about 10 minutes. Add mustard, ginger, and salt. Stir. Reduce heat. Serve hot with duck (capon, chicken, or goose).

Another recipe that received rave reviews to my captive audience and yes, this will also appear in a future feast. I sliced the onions in half, and then sliced each half into long slivers following the "ribs" of the onion as a guideline. I cooked the onions until they were translucent and then set them aside. Later I was able to skim off some of the chicken fat and used it in place of the 2 tbsp. of melted duck fat. After the chicken was out of the oven and resting, I completed this relish. I believe this would be good with beef as well as pork.

Original Recipe: Mviij. Let lory. — Take Mylke, an sette it ouer ]>e fyre; take Salt & Safroun, an caste ]7er-to ; take yroun, ]7e pike an J^e Whyte y-strainyd a lyte,^ & caste it j^er-to ; whan ]>e Mylke his skaldyng bote, caste ]!e stuf ]7er-to, an Jienne stere yt tyll it crodde ; and jif ])o\i wolt haue it a-forsyd with lyjt coste, Take ylke, & make it skaldyng bote, & caste ]7er-to Paw pikes of Eyroun, Sugre, ponder Gyngere, Clowes, Maces, an let not fully boyle ; & so bote, drcsse it forth, an ley it on ]>e crodde ; & jif ]>o\i wolt a-forse it in maner of charlet, do it in fasty??g dayis, & serue it forth.

Translated: 58: Larded Milk: Take milk and set it over the fire; take salt and saffron and cast thereto; take eggs, the yolk and the white strained a little and cast it thereto; when the Milk is scalding hot, cast the stuff thereto, and then stir it till it curdles: and if thou will have it seasoned with little cost, take Milk and make it scalding hot, and cast thereto raw yolks of eggs, sugar, powdered ginger, cloves, maces, and let it not fully boil; & so hot dress it forth, and lay it on the curd; and if thou will season it in manner of charlet, do it in fasting days, & serve it forth. 

Note: Rather than making the cheese (first part of recipe) purchase small curd cottage cheese instead, mix it with saffron, and top it with the egg sauce.

Interpreted Recipe  Let Lory – serves 4

4 cups milk
1 tsp. salt
2 beaten eggs (remove stringy white bits)
Pinch of saffron

Bring milk, salt and saffron to a boil in a 2 quart saucepan. Add the beaten eggs and stir. Form curds by alternately heating and cooling the mixture. Stir until it starts to curdle.
Add 2 tsp. vinegar will make curds form faster.

Remove from heat when curds have formed and allow cooling completely. Place several layers of cheesecloth in a strainer and place strainer over a large bowl. Spoon the cheese mixture into the cheesecloth and allow draining until the drips start to slow down. Lift the cheesecloth bag without spilling the contents and squeeze gently until all whey has been removed.

Spoon the drained curds into a dish and top with the warm egg sauce before serving.

Egg Sauce

1 cup milk
1 tbsp. sugar
3 beaten egg yolks
½ tsp ginger (or to taste)
¼ tsp. each clove and mace

Heat milk to scalding hot and remove from heat. When cooled slightly, stir a spoonful of the milk into the beaten eggs yolks. Add the egg yolk mixture to the milk and stir. Heat gently while stirring. Add spices and stir until sauce reaches desired thickness—do not boil. Remove from the heat, spoon over the curds, and serve warm.

This is a so-so dish for a few reasons. Let's start with the positives, it is a very pretty dish to look at, pale yellow creamy curds drenched with a custard sauce. It somewhat resembles a very sweet cottage cheese and it is a very filling dish. That being said, it was not the most flavorful dish. It was bland compared to the other dishes it was served aside. Also, the really big negative for me, is that it was a very fussy dish--it needed babysat. You have to be very careful not to burn the milk, and once the curds started to form (I used the alternative and added vinegar), you need to keep a very close eye on it. I didn't, so my curds were "slightly smoky" on the back end.

Use this as a cautionary tale--if you are going to make cheese, ignore any and all distractions including messages from friends, company at the back door, and the dog's sudden need to urinate. That quickly you will go from a wonderfully delicious, decadent treat, to a mass of burnt curds. In this case, I had a very small area in the pan that was lightly browned and it ruined the whole dish.

That being said, I am not opposed to making this if I am serving a royal luncheon or a small group of people. If I were to do this at a feast, I would need an experienced cheesemaker whose entire time would be spent making this dish one batch at a time. *THAT* is why this dish is not something I could recommend for a future event. There are much more delightful things to cook that require the same degree of care and attentiveness this recipe needs.

However, I will be experimenting with this in the future, this might very well a dish that can be made a day or two ahead, and then served. If so, this will appear, quite probably as something on the table. One of my friends smeared it on his sourdough and declared it "better then butter".

#medievalfood #scafeast #scacook #historicfood #harleianMS279

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

SCA Feast - Ceilidh XVI March 29th, 2003

Ceilidh XVI - March 29th, 2003

Featuring Several Recipes from Mary Savelli’s “Tastes of Anglo Saxon England”

First Course
Mearh Smeamete -Sausage Casserole
Hlaf - Bread
Æppla Syfling -Apple Butter
Caules Wyrtmete -Cabbage salad     

Second Course

Hriðer Smeamete Stewed Beef
Beren Briw Barley Polenta
Hunigbæe Moran Honeyed Carrots

Third Course

Brǣdan Fisc-Fish baked with Coriander*
Pisan Peas with salt and oil*

Fourth Course

Sumerlio rnearhgehæcc Summer Pudding***
Hunigæppel Honey Nut Cakes

**Caveat** It has been 12 years since this banquest was cooked, once again, many of my redactions have been lost to time. Several recipes (denoted with a *) my best guesses on food that could have been served based on archeological digs and cooking methods.  The "Fish baked with Coriander" is Roman in origin, as well as the Honey-Nut Cakes.  Summer pudding is modern in origin. I have taken my best guess on the names for the items that are not
Image taken from Jen Delyth Celtic Art Studio
Mearh Smeamete -Sausage Casserole Serves 6

1 small onion chopped
1 tbsp. oil
1 pound pork sausage
1 large apple chopped
½ tsp. each salt and cinnamon
¼ tsp. each black pepper and cardamom
2 tbsp. white wine vinegar
¼ cup butter
¼ cup flour
2 cups milk
Approximately 2 cups cubed bread
1 large baking dish

Preheat oven to 375 degrees.  Grease casserole dish with butter and line the bottom of the dish with half of the bread.  Heat oil and sauté onion and sausage. Stir the apple into the sausage mixture and spoon it over the bread in the casserole dish.  Sprinkle with seasonings and vinegar; set the dish aside. 

In a saucepan, melt the butter, stirring in the flour to form a roux.  Add the milk all at once and stir until thickened and bubbly.  Spoon this mixture over the sausage and apple.  Top with remaining bread and bake in a casserole uncovered for 30 minutes (Savelli, 2002).

Hlaf – Bread

Guests were offered rye, oat and wheat breads purchased at the local bakery.  The bakery uses sourdough starter to make it’s bread J

Æppla Syfling -Apple butter Makes 1 ½ cups

2 medium apples peeled and finely chopped
1 cup apple cider (or apple juice)
2 tbsp. Honey
1/8 tsp. ground black pepper
¼ tsp.  Each dried mint and cumin leaves

Boil the apples in the cider for 30 minutes or until soft, puree.  Thoroughly mix the remaining ingredients into the apple puree and cool. 

Caules Wyrtmete -Cabbage Salad Serves 4

½ head of cabbage shredded and rinsed
2-4 spinach leaves torn and rinsed
1 small leak chopped fine
½ cup fresh or frozen peas cooked and cooled
½ cup feta cheese, cubed
¼ cup cider vinegar
½ cup olive or salad oil
¼ tsp. each salt and pepper or to taste

Toss vegetables together in a large bowl.  Mix together salt, pepper, oil and vinegar and pour over the salad, tossing gently.  Top with cheese.

Hriðer Smeamete-Stewed Beef Serves 4-6

¼ tsp. saffron threads
1 tbsp. hot water
1 tbsp. white wine vinegar
1 ½ to 2 pounds stewing beef or beef brisket
2 tbsp. oil
¾ cup dried breadcrumbs
1 small apple chopped
¼ cup raisins
¼ cup dates chopped
½ cup honey
½ tsp. salt
¼ tsp. each ground black pepper and cinnamon
¼ cup apple juice (or dry red wine)
2 tbsp. butter
1 baking dish

Preheat oven to 375 degrees.  Crush saffron and add to the hot water and vinegar and set aside.  Brown the beef in the oil and set aside. Grease the casserole dish with butter and spread ½ cup of breadcrumbs in the bottom of the dish.  Spread the beef, fruit, saffron-water and other spices evenly over the crumbs. Mix the honey with the wine and gently pour this mixture over the beef.  Spread the remaining bread crumbs over the beef and dot the crumbs with butter.  Bake for 45 minutes or until done.

Beren Briw- Barley Polenta

1 cup barley
4 cups water
4 radishes minced
2 tbsp. butter
½ cup water
1 ¾ cups beef broth or stock
½ tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. cinnamon

Soak the barley in water for four hours.  Drain the water and reserve the barley.  Melt the butter in a medium saucepan; sauté the radish. Stir in the remaining ingredients and bring to boil.  Reduce the heat, cover the pan with the lid and let mixture simmer until barley is tender.  Approximately 40-60 minutes.

Hunigbæe Moran- Honeyed Carrots

5 carrots chopped
½ tsp. salt
2-4 medium radishes sliced
½ cup butter
¼ cup honey
2 tbsp. cider vinegar
½ tsp. ground cinnamon
¼ tsp. dried mint
1 tbsp. cress chopped

Boil the carrots with salt.  Simmer for approximately 15 minutes.  Saute radishes in butter, add honey and vinegar.  When this is well blended, add the carrots, cinnamon, mint and cress.  Lower heat and heat through (approximately 5 minutes).

Note: For this recipe I used a mix of carrots and parsnips

Sciellfisc-Shellfish* Serves 6-8

Note: This recipe is very loosely based on a recipe I had located on the internet and can no longer find.  However, I believe it very closely resembled the one found at the Ribe Viking Center website (Fish and Shellfish: Seafood for Vikings).

1 pounds mixed shellfish (muscles & clams)
1 pound Shrimp or prawns
Approximately 3 cups water or broth
1 onion chopped
1 clove of garlic chopped
Saffron threads
Salt and Pepper to taste
Vinegar to taste

Clean the shellfish-be sure to remove any that are broken, chipped, not closed tightly or are dead prior to the cooking.  Also remove the “beard” from the mussel. Bring onion, garlic, saffron, salt and pepper to a boil.  Add the shellfish, and cook until the shells are opened.  Throw in the shrimp, and stir.  Food is ready when shrimp have turned pink.  Remove from broth and serve with vinegar on side as a dipping sauce.

Brǣdan Fisc-Fish Baked with Coriander* aka Aliter ius in pisce elixo, Apicius Serves 6-8

1 ½ to 2 pounds fish (salmon, trout, tilapia)
1 tbsp. salt
1 tbsp. coriander seeds
2 tbsp. white wine vinegar
1 tbsp. liquamen (or fish or soy sauce)
2 tbsp. dill to garnish

Clean and wash the fish.  Crush the salt and the coriander seed together until it has become a fine powder.  Place the spices into a pan and press one side of the fish onto the spices.  Place the fish into an oven proof casserole dish, cover with a lid and bake at 350 degrees until the fish has cooked through.  Sprinkle with vinegar and liquamn, and garnish with the dill. Serve hot (Ancient Roman Recipe Page for Cooking: Fish Cooked in its Own Juice).

Pisan-Peas with salt and oil*   

There was no recipe for this.  I cooked frozen peas until they were tender with a handful of chopped onions until they were tender.  They were slightly smooshed before put into the serving bowl.  I topped with salt and a drizzle of oil.

Sumerlio rnearhgehæcc-Summer Pudding* Serves 8

1 ½ cups each mixed berries (I used strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and blueberries)
10-15 slices thin white bread, crust removed
Approximately 1 brown sugar loosely packed

Clean the fruit gently and dry.  Cut strawberries in half and keep them separated from the remaining fruit.  Heat sugar and 3 tbps. Water in a large pan until the sugar is dissolved.  Bring to a boil for 1 minute and add all of the fruit except the strawberries.  Cook for 3 minutes over low heat, stirring 2-3 times.  The fruit should be softened and mostly intact.  Put a sieve over the bowl and tip in the fruit and juice.

Meanwhile, prepare the bread. Line your serving dish with cling wrap.  This will allow you to tip the pudding out easier.  Cut the crusts off the bread, cut 4 pieces of bread in half, and cut at least 2 slices into 4 triangles each. 

Dip a whole piece of bread into the juice for a few seconds until it is coated.  Push this into the bottom of the basin. Then fit in the triangular shaped pieces around the sides of the basin so that they fit together neatly.  Fill in as much space as possible.  Spoon the softened fruit into the hollow space of the pudding, and add strawberries here and there as you go.  Cover with remaining bread soaked in juice, and seal with cling wrap. Top with a weighted bowl and let the flavors mingle for several hours or overnight. Serve with leftover juice, any extra berries and cream (Goodfood).

Hunigæppel-Honey Cakes aka Gastris, Apicius Makes about 15 pieces

1 each almonds and hazelnuts
1 tbsp. bitter almonds
2 tbsp. poppy seeds
1 ½ cups sesame seeds
7 tbsp. honey
1 tsp. coarsely ground black pepper

Heat the oven to 350 degrees. Combine the nuts and poppy seeds and roast them to give them color.  Roast the sesame seeds briefly and allow them to cool.  Pound or process the sesame seeds to a fine texture (I skipped this step). Place the honey into a pan and bring to the boil, simmer about 7 minutes and add the pounded sesame seeds, stirring well.  Allow the honey and seed mixture to cool enough it can be handled easily and turn onto a greased table or marble slab.  Grease your hands and knead until firm but still warm.  Divide into 2 equal portions and keep one of these warm.  Grease a shallow square baking tray or pan with olive oil, then using a greased rolling pin, roll the cooler portion of the seasame paste into a thin sheet and fit inside the tray.

Place the roasted nuts and the pepper into a food processor and pulse briefly, alternately, you can break them up in a mortar and pestle. Meanwhile, heat the other half of the honey, and simmer for 7 minutes the same way as before. Add the nut mixture and stir well.  While still hot, spread this over the sesame layer and level it off. 

Roll the second sesame layer into a sheet and use it to cover the nuts.  Put it in place for an hour or until set and without delay, cut it into lozenges, squares or any shape you desire (I sliced it).  Serve with fruit at the end of the meal, or as a sweet any time (Dalby, 1996).

Ancient Roman Recipe Page for Cooking: Fish Cooked in its Own Juice. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from Celtnet Recipes:
Dalby, A. a. (1996). The Classical Cookbook. London: British Museum Press.
Fish and Shellfish: Seafood for Vikings. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from Ribe VikingeCenter:,-shellfish.aspx
Goodfood. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from Summer Pudding:
Savelli, M. (2002). Tastes of Anglo-Saxon England. Anglo Saxon Books.

#medievalfood  #scafeast  #scacook  #historicfood 

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

SCA Feast - Ceilidh XIV - A Fourteenth Century Italian Feast - February 24, 2001

Ceilidh XIV
February 24, 2001 
VA Medical Center

Feast Menu--A Fourtenth Century Italian feast by Browyn nf Mhaithon

*Many of my redactions for this feast have been lost to time. Those I have remembered I have placed here.  The recipes that are offered must be attributed directly to the books from which they were first found. 

First Remove

Torta d'agli-Garlic torta(boiled garlic, farmers and cream cheese, baked in a pastry shell)
Une Vinaigrette-A Vinegar Dish (grilled beef and onions, serves with a sauce of beef broth, red wine vinegar, ginger and pepper)
Fungi di Monte-Mountain Mushrooms (mushrooms cooked with olive oil, and spices)

Second Remove

Del Brodo Saracenico--Saracen Chicken (Chicken cooked with white wine, almonds, dates, prunes, raisins, fresh apples and pears)
Cretonniee de pois--peas cooked in almond milk
De Lasanis--Lasagne (noodles made from fermented dough, boiled, and served with pepper and cheese)

Third Remove

Cormarye--Cormary (Roast pork cooked with red wine, garlic, coriander, caraway and pepper)
Fava fresche con brodo de carne--Fresh fava beans with parsley and mint
De la insaleggiata di cipolle--Roast Onion Salad


Dirola--Darioles (a yellow custard tart, flavored with cinnamon and rosewater topped with candied orange peel)
Torta Bianca--White Tart (a white tart flavored with cream cheese and ginger, topped with candied cherries)

Torta D’agli - (Redon, 1998)

For the crust:

1 ¾ cups flour (mixture of stone ground white and wheat)
9 Tbs. butter/lard mix
Pinch of salt

Add butter/lard mix to the flour and mix until it resembles fine grained sand.  Add the salt to the water and stir to dissolve.  Slowly combine water to flour until it forms a stiff paste- do not overwork.  Form into a ball and refrigerate a few hours or overnight.

For the filling:

5 heads (yes the whole head) of garlic
½ pound pork belly, or bacon
6 ounces farmers (cottage) cheese-whole milk
5 ounces cream cheese
3 eggs
Handful of raisins (optional)
Pinch of saffron

Spice Blend

1/3 tsp. each ground cloves, nutmeg and ginger
1 tsp. each cinnamon and pepper

Peel garlic and add to a pot. Cover with water and bring to boil, boil over medium heat for approximately 15 minutes or until tender.  Drain the garlic and shock in cold water.  Drain.

Grind together pork or bacon with garlic in a food processor or crush with a pestle and mortar. 

Blend together cream cheese and farmer’s cheese, then add the garlic and pork mixture along with saffron, raisons,  and eggs.  Flavor with  salt and spice blend to taste. 

Roll out 2/3 of pastry and line a 9” deep pie tin. Add the filling and seal with remaining pastry.  Bake in a 400 degree oven for approximately 45 minutes to an hour.

Une Vinaigrette- (Scully, 1998)


1 ½ cups red wine
1 cup beef broth
2 slices white bread, toasted and ground into crumbs (I used manchet bread I had baked)
2 tsp. ginger
½ tsp. salt
¼ tsp. grains of paradise (I used allspice)
¼ tsp. pepper
Pinch of saffron (optional)
2 Tbsp. red wine vinegar

To make the sauce combine beef broth and wine and heat over medium heat in a saucepan.  Add breadcrumbs and whisk together until it begins to thicken and sauce becomes smooth. Add remaining spices and wine vinegar and simmer for several more minutes. 

Note: It is important to strain the sauce before you serve it.  Once strained sauce can be set aside.


1 ½ and 2 pounds beef or lamb cut into chunks
4 medium onions sliced
2-3 Tbsp. oil, butter or lard

Broil the meat in oven (I grilled it) until it is cooked through. Do not overcook.  Slice and chop the onions and sauté in the fat until golden.  Add meat to onions and cook.  Alternately, if you are grilling, you can grill the onions with the meat. 

Add meat and onions to the sauce mixture and heat thoroughly before serving.  Alternatively, you can serve the meat and onions separately (it is suggested with rice or pasta) and leave the sauce on the side for dipping.

I served the meat with the sauce without benefit of rice or pasta and it was well received.
Fungi di Monte - (Redon, 1998)

1 pound wild or cultivated mushrooms
1 small onion chopped
Olive oil
1 pinch each pepper, ginger and nutmeg
2 pinches ground coriander
Salt to taste

Trim and clean the mushrooms.  Cook in boiling water for about ten minutes and then drain thoroughly.  Sweat the onion in olive oil until soft and golden.  Add the mushrooms to the onions and sauté. When mushrooms start to brown, season with salt and spices.  Serve when golden brown.
Del Brodo Saracenico - (Redon, 1998)

1 capon or chicken
1/3 cup blanched almonds
1/3 cup raisins
Handful of dates and prunes cut in half
2 slices of bread (I used manchet, sourdough would work too)
1 cup white wine
Juice of 1 or 2 lemons
Juice of 1 orange
1 ounce salt pork fatback or bacon cut into 1/8 dice
1 apple and pear peeled, cored and chopped
Salt to taste

Spice Blend
¼ tsp. each nutmeg and black pepper
1 pinch of ginger and cloves

Salt the capon or chicken and roast it until brown.  Try not to overcook or it may fall apart when you simmer it.  Toast the bread and mix it with the juice of the orange, lemon and wine. When the chicken is done, carve it into serving pieces and set aside.  Pour the juice and wine mixture into a large saucepan or casserole dish and add the chicken, spice mix, fresh and dried fruit, almonds and bacon or salt fatback pork.  Bring to a boil and simmer for 15-20 minutes.  Check for seasoning and serve.

Cretonniee de pois - (Redon, 1998)

12 ounces split peas
2 cups milk (I subbed almond milk)
3 egg yolks
½ tsp. ground ginger
Pinch of saffron (optional)
1 cup leftover cooked chicken (preferably dark meat), veal or chicken livers cubed (I did not use)
1 tbsp. lard

Carefully wash the split peas, taking care to remove any stones and leave them to soak in cold water for an hour. Cook the peas in 2 quarts of lightly salted water until they are soft and can be crushed with light pressure.

Bring milk (or almond milk) to boil and add ginger and saffron.  Remove from heat.  In a small bowl beat the egg yolks with a whisk and pour them through a strainer into another bowl large enough to hold the milk.  Slowly pour the hot milk into the beaten yolks, whisking constantly.

In a heavy skillet heat the lard over medium-high heat and add the cubes of cooked meat, sauté until crisp and brown.

Reheat the peas over low heat, stirring to prevent them from burning and slowly stir in the yolk mixture and heat till slightly thickened.  At this point do not allow the soup to boil.  Check for salt. Garnish with meat before serving.  Or – serve the soup with the meat on the side and allow guests to add to taste.
De Lasanis - (Redon, 1998)


3 cups flour (semolina, or 50/50 mix stoneground white and wheat)
1 cup warm water
1 ½ tsp. salt and yeast
2/3 cup freshly grated parmesan cheese
Black pepper to taste

Spice Blend:

½ tsp each cardamom, nutmeg
1/8 tsp. cinnamon & pepper

Dissolve yeast in water and let proof for 10 minutes.  Mix flour and salt and add the yeast mixture to it.  Form into a pliable dough that is elastic and not stiff.  Cover the dough with a towel and let rise at least an hour.

Towards the end of the rising time you will want to put a kettle of water to boil, salt it as you would for any pasta.

Punch down dough and then knead it back into a ball. Divide ball in half and roll it to an even thickness of about 1/16 of an inch. The dough is very sticky so be sure to flour your surfaces well. Cut your dough into  2 inch squares and drop them into the boiling water.  They will rise to the surface when cooked.

Remove the cooked noodles from the water and place in a pre-heated baking dish. You will need to layer the noodles with the cheese and spices.  On the last layer, sprinkle generously with cheese and spices.  Serve immediately.

Cormarye – (Redon, 1998)

2-3 pound pork loin, or bone in pork
1 cup good red wine
½ cup broth (I use 50/50 chicken & beef mix)
4 large cloves garlic
1 tsp. ground coriander seeds
1 tsp. ground caraway seeds
1/3 tsp. ground pepper
Salt to taste

Make a marinade with wine, garlic, coriander, caraway and pepper.  Tie the roast (if necessary) and pierce it all over with salt. Place the roast in the marinade, turning to coat all over.  Marinate for a few hours or overnight, turning occasionally.

Preheat oven to 350 degrees and roast the pork for about 90 minutes, basting frequently.  When it is done, remove the roast from the pan and let it rest in a warm place.  To make the sauce, bring pan juices to a boil and add broth, taste for seasoning and serve on side with the meat.

Fava fresche con brodo de carne  - (Redon, 1998)

2 cups beef or chicken broth, or 50/50 mix of both
4 ½ pounds fresh fava beans
4 ounces salt pork belly or pancetta
1 tbsp. chopped fresh parsley and mint

Shell fava beans and plunge them into boiling water for 5 seconds or so.  Drain them and refresh in cold water.  Using a paring knife remove the tough outer skin of each bean. Cut the pork into tiny dice and add the broth, beans and pork to a saucepan or casserole, bring to boil and cook for approximately 10 minutes or until they begin to break apart.  Add parsley and mint and return to the boil and cook for a few moments.  Add salt to taste and serve.

De la insaleggiata di cipolle -  (Redon, 1998)

2 pounds sweet onions
Olive oil
Wine vinegar
Scant ½ tsp. spice blend*
Salt and pepper to taste

You can bake your onions in the fire if it is hot by placing them in the embers.  If not, wrap them in foil and roast them in a 500 degree oven for about an hour.

Remove the onions from the oven and unwrap them, the skin should be blackened and the flesh will be caramelized. When the onions are cool enough not to burn you, slip them from their skin and cut them into very thin slices with a sharp knife. 
Works Cited

Put the onions into a salad bowl, season with salt, pepper and spice mixture.  Add olive oil an vinegar to taste, mix and serve.

Spice Blend

2 tbsp. fresh ground black pepper, cinnamon, and ginger
1 ½ tbsp. saffron crushed to a fine powder in a mortar
¾ tsp. cloves

Dirola--Darioles - (Redon, 1998)

For the crust:

1 ¾ cups flour (mixture of stone ground white and wheat)
9 Tbs. butter/lard mix
Pinch of salt

Add butter/lard mix to the flour and mix until it resembles fine grained sand.  Add the salt to the water and stir to dissolve.  Slowly combine water to flour until it forms a stiff paste- do not overwork.  Form into a ball and refrigerate a few hours or overnight.

Roll out the pastry and line a 9” pie or tart pan at least 2” deep.  Line it with aluminum foil and fill with beans or pie weights.  Bake for about 15 minutes, remove the weights and the foil and return to the oven for about 5 more minutes.

For the filling

3 cups milk
6 egg yolks
1/12 cups sugar
2 tsp. cinnamon
2-3 tbsp. rosewater

Candied orange peel to garnish

Whisk together egg yolks, sugar, cinnamon and salt until smooth and glossy and then slowly beat in the milk.  Pour the egg mixture into the partly baked shell, return to the oven, and bake in a 350 degree oven for an hour or until set but still soft enough to quiver slightly when moved.  If top is browning to quickly, cover it with aluminum foil.

When done, remove from oven, sprinkle with rosewater and garnish with candied orange peel.

Torta Bianca - (Redon, 1998)

For the crust:

1 ¾ cups flour (mixture of stone ground white and wheat)
9 Tbs. butter/lard mix
Pinch of salt

Add butter/lard mix to the flour and mix until it resembles fine grained sand.  Add the salt to the water and stir to dissolve.  Slowly combine water to flour until it forms a stiff paste- do not overwork.  Form into a ball and refrigerate a few hours or overnight.

Roll out the pastry and line a 9” pie or tart pan at least 2” deep.  Line it with aluminum foil and fill with beans or pie weights.  Bake for about 15 minutes, remove the weights and the foil and return to the oven for about 5 more minutes.
For the filling

10 ounces softened cream cheese
6 egg whites
Scant 2/3 cup sugar
9 tbsp. softened butter
1 cup milk

Mix together cream cheese, sugar, binger, salt and butter.  Whip egg whites enough to break them apart and pour into the cream cheese mixture. Beat in some milk until the mixture has the consistency of a thick cream.  Pour the filling into the partially baked pie crust and bake for one hour in a 375 degree oven. Monitor carefully – the crust must be thoroughly baked but it must be light colored.

For the topping:

2 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. rose water
Candied cherries to garnish

When tart has been cooked, sprinkle with sugar and rosewater and garnish with the cherries

Works Cited

Redon, O. F. (1998). The Medieval Kitchen; Recipes from France and Italy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Scully, E. D. (1998). Early French Cookery; Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

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